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  1. Proper cerebrovascular development and neurogliovascular unit assembly are essential for brain growth and function throughout life, ensuring the continuous supply of nutrients and oxygen. This involves crucial...

    Authors: Adeline Collignon, Laurence Dion-Albert, Caroline Ménard and Vanessa Coelho-Santos
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:2
  2. It has been proposed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can enter and leave the retina and optic nerve along perivascular spaces surrounding the central retinal vessels as part of an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) dependent o...

    Authors: Xiao J. Tong, Gokhan Akdemir, Meetu Wadhwa, Alan S. Verkman and Alex J. Smith
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:1
  3. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a complex structure that facilitates nutrient delivery and metabolic waste clearance, forms the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and supports fluid homeostasis in the brain. The integ...

    Authors: Ella Rowsthorn, William Pham, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Meng Law, Matthew P. Pase and Ian H. Harding
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:97
  4. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary murine, bovine, and porcine brain capillary endothelial cell cultures have long been regarded as robust models with appropriate properties to examine the funct...

    Authors: Burak Ozgür, Elena Puris, Andreas Brachner, Antje Appelt-Menzel, Sabrina Oerter, Viktor Balzer, Mikkel Roland Holst, Rasmus Folmann Christiansen, Kathrine Hyldig, Stephen T. Buckley, Mie Kristensen, Seppo Auriola, Allan Jensen, Gert Fricker, Morten Schallburg Nielsen, Winfried Neuhaus…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:96
  5. Autoreactive T lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) play a crucial role in the initiation of demyelination and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). ...

    Authors: Baharak Hosseinkhani, Gayel Duran, Cindy Hoeks, Doryssa Hermans, Melissa Schepers, Paulien Baeten, Joren Poelmans, Britt Coenen, Kübra Bekar, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Tim Vanmierlo, Luc Michiels, Niels Hellings and Bieke Broux
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:95
  6. Microdialysis is a technique that can be utilized to sample the interstitial fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), including in primary malignant brain tumors known as gliomas. Gliomas are mainly accessib...

    Authors: Cecile Riviere-Cazaux, Karishma Rajani, Masum Rahman, Juhee Oh, Desmond A. Brown, Jaclyn F. White, Benjamin T. Himes, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Moses Rodriguez, Arthur E. Warrington, Sani H. Kizilbash, William F. Elmquist and Terry C. Burns
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:94
  7. Traditionally, the meninges are described as 3 distinct layers, dura, arachnoid and pia. Yet, the classification of the connective meningeal membranes surrounding the brain is based on postmortem macroscopic e...

    Authors: Virginia Plá, Styliani Bitsika, Michael J Giannetto, Antonio Ladron-de-Guevara, Daniel Gahn-Martinez, Yuki Mori, Maiken Nedergaard and Kjeld Møllgård
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:93

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:48

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) symptoms associated with liver insufficiency are linked to the neurotoxic effects of ammonia and other toxic metabolites reaching the brain via the blood–brain barrier (BBB), furthe...

    Authors: Karolina Orzeł-Gajowik, Krzysztof Milewski and Magdalena Zielińska
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:92
  9. The efficacy of intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage compared with that of continuous CSF drainage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains undetermined to date. Therefore, we investig...

    Authors: Tomoyasu Yamanaka, Yusuke Nishikawa, Takashi Iwata, Teishiki Shibata, Mitsuru Uchida, Yuki Hayashi, Hiroyuki Katano, Motoki Tanikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Mitsuhito Mase
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:91
  10. Current strategies to identify ligands for brain delivery select candidates based on preferential binding to cell-membrane components (CMC) on brain endothelial cells (EC). However, such strategies generate li...

    Authors: Giulia Maria Porro, Italo Lorandi, Xueying Liu, Kazunori Kataoka, Giuseppe Battaglia and Daniel Gonzalez-Carter
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:88
  11. Reissner’s fiber (RF) is an extracellular polymer comprising the large monomeric protein SCO-spondin (SSPO) secreted by the subcommissural organ (SCO) that extends through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled vent...

    Authors: Huixin Xu, Guillaume P. Dugué, Yasmine Cantaut-Belarif, François-Xavier Lejeune, Suhasini Gupta, Claire Wyart and Maria K. Lehtinen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:89
  12. The lack of accessible and informative biomarkers results in a delayed diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose symptoms appear when a significant number of dopaminergic neurons have already disappeared. T...

    Authors: Joan Serrano-Marín, Silvia Marin, David Bernal-Casas, Alejandro Lillo, Marc González-Subías, Gemma Navarro, Marta Cascante, Juan Sánchez-Navés and Rafael Franco
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:90
  13. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a selectively permeable membrane that separates the bloodstream from the brain. While useful for protecting neural tissue from harmful substances, brain-related diseases are di...

    Authors: Melanie E. M. Stamp, Michael Halwes, David Nisbet and David J. Collins
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:87
  14. Parenchymal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) characterizes Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ homeostasis is maintained by two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC1 and ABCB1) mediating efflux, and the rec...

    Authors: Amira Sayed Hanafy, Alf Lamprecht and Dirk Dietrich
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:85
  15. Most investigations into postural influences on craniospinal and adjacent physiology have been performed in anesthetized animals. A comprehensive study evaluating these physiologies while awake has yet been co...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Markus Florian Oertel, Margarete Arras, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:83
  16. Here, we report an experimental setup to benchmark different receptors for targeted therapeutic antibody delivery at the blood–brain barrier. We used brain capillary endothelial-like cells derived from induced...

    Authors: Mikkel Roland Holst, Nienke Marije de Wit, Burak Ozgür, Andreas Brachner, Kathrine Hyldig, Antje Appelt-Menzel, Hannah Sleven, Zameel Cader, Helga Eveline de Vries, Winfried Neuhaus, Allan Jensen, Birger Brodin and Morten Schallburg Nielsen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:82
  17. Cerebral vasospasm significantly contributes to poor prognosis and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Current research indicates that the pathological and physiological mechanisms o...

    Authors: Ziliang Hu, Xinpeng Deng, Shengjun Zhou, Chenhui Zhou, Menglu Shen, Xiang Gao and Yi Huang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:81
  18. Metastatic brain cancer has poor prognosis due to challenges in both detection and treatment. One contributor to poor prognosis is the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which severely limits the transport of therapeu...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Joanna Maressa, Zhaobin Guo, Tracy D. Chung, Alanna Farrell, Ria Jha and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:80
  19. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) plays a vital role in maintaining brain thyroid hormone homeostasis. This transmembrane transporter is expressed at the brain barriers, as the blood–brain barrier (BBB)...

    Authors: Marina Guillén-Yunta, Víctor Valcárcel-Hernández, Ángel García-Aldea, Guadalupe Soria, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Ana Montero-Pedrazuela and Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:79
  20. The function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is impaired in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), but the associated molecular mechanisms, particularly with respect to the high-risk APOE4/4 genotype, are not w...

    Authors: Undine Haferkamp, Carla Hartmann, Chaudhry Luqman Abid, Andreas Brachner, Alevtina Höchner, Anna Gerhartl, Bernadette Harwardt, Selin Leckzik, Jennifer Leu, Marco Metzger, Marina Nastainczyk-Wulf, Winfried Neuhaus, Sabrina Oerter, Ole Pless, Dan Rujescu, Matthias Jung…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:78
  21. The relationship between neurochemical changes and outcome after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), a treatable dementia and gait disorder, is unclear. We used baseline ventricul...

    Authors: Rebecca Grønning, Anna Jeppsson, Per Hellström, Katarina Laurell, Dan Farahmand, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Carsten Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:77
  22. As a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection various neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms can appear, which may persist for several months post infection. However, cell type-specific routes of brain infect...

    Authors: Chiara Stüdle, Hideaki Nishihara, Sven Wischnewski, Laila Kulsvehagen, Sylvain Perriot, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Stephan Frank, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Renaud Du Pasquier, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Katrin Pröbstel and Britta Engelhardt
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:76
  23. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ requiring a large amount of glucose. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a by-product of glucose metabolism, is known to be involved in microvascular dysfunction and is associ...

    Authors: Eline Berends, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Sébastien Foulquier and Casper G Schalkwijk
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:75
  24. The meninges surround the brain and spinal cord, affording physical protection while also serving as a niche of neuroimmune activity. Though possessing stromal qualities, its complex cellular and extracellular...

    Authors: Elise Santorella, Jeremy L. Balsbaugh, Shujun Ge, Parisa Saboori, David Baker and Joel S. Pachter
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:74
  25. Compromised structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the pathological hallmarks of brain infection by HIV-1. BBB damage during HIV-1 infection has been associated with modified express...

    Authors: Silvia Torices, Leah Daire, Sierra Simon, Oandy Naranjo, Luisa Mendoza, Timea Teglas, Nikolai Fattakhov, Daniel Adesse and Michal Toborek
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:73
  26. Neuroinflammatory processes have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, but have rarely been investigated in patients with idiopa...

    Authors: Madelene Braun, Gustaf Boström, Martin Ingelsson, Lena Kilander, Malin Löwenmark, Dag Nyholm, Joachim Burman, Valter Niemelä, Eva Freyhult, Kim Kultima and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:72
  27. Intraventricular hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening condition. Approximately 20% of patients develop posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus with increased ventricular volume and intracranial pressure. Hydroce...

    Authors: Laura Øllegaard Johnsen, Kathrine Abildskov Friis and Helle Hasager Damkier
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:71
  28. Loss of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood–brain barrier contributes to amyloid-β (Aβ) brain accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using transgenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-overexpressing mic...

    Authors: Milica Vulin, Yu Zhong, Bryan J. Maloney, Björn Bauer and Anika M. S. Hartz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:70
  29. Repetitive transient intracranial pressure waveform elevations up to 50 mmHg (ICP B-waves) are often used to define pathological conditions and determine indications for ICP-reducing treatment. We recently sho...

    Authors: Casper Schwartz Riedel, Isabel Martinez-Tejada, Morten Andresen, Jens E. Wilhjelm, Poul Jennum and Marianne Juhler
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:69
  30. Pharmacological treatment of CNS diseases is limited due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent years showed significant advancement in the field of CNS drug delivery enablers, with technolog...

    Authors: Itzik Cooper, David Last, Orly Ravid, Daniel Rand, Erez Matsree, Liora Omesi, Chen Shemesh, Meir Liberman, Leor Zach, Orit Furman, Dianne Daniels, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Yael Mardor and Shirley Sharabi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:67
  31. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is supposed to be an early event in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB alterations and AD progressio...

    Authors: Shingo Ito, Ryotaro Yagi, Seiryo Ogata, Takeshi Masuda, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido and Sumio Ohtsuki
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:66
  32. Since arterial flow is the leading actor in neuro-fluids flow dynamics, it might be interesting to assess whether it is meaningful to study the arterial flow waveform in more detail and whether this provides n...

    Authors: Kimi Piedad Owashi, Cyrille Capel and Olivier Balédent
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:65
  33. The blood brain barrier limits entry of macromolecular diagnostic and therapeutic cargos. Blood brain barrier transcytosis via receptor mediated transport systems, such as the transferrin receptor, can be used...

    Authors: Thomas J. Esparza, Shiran Su, Caroline M. Francescutti, Elvira Rodionova, Joong Hee Kim and David L. Brody
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:64
  34. The literature regarding the global cerebral blood flow (CBF) in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is divergent leading to skepticism about the significance of blood flow to the disease’s underlying p...

    Authors: Grant A Bateman
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:63
  35. Whether you are reading, running or sleeping, your brain and its fluid environment continuously interacts to distribute nutrients and clear metabolic waste. Yet, the precise mechanisms for solute transport wit...

    Authors: Vegard Vinje, Bastian Zapf, Geir Ringstad, Per Kristian Eide, Marie E. Rognes and Kent-Andre Mardal
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:62
  36. Hydrocephalus is a pathological accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leading to ventriculomegaly. Hydrocephalus may be primary or secondary to traumatic brain injury, infection, or intracranial hemorrhag...

    Authors: Alexandra Hochstetler, Hillary Smith, Makenna Reed, Louise Hulme, Paul Territo, Amanda Bedwell, Scott Persohn, Nicola Perrotti, Lucia D’Antona, Francesca Musumeci, Silvia Schenone and Bonnie L. Blazer-Yost
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:61
  37. Mounting evidence suggests that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the regulation of brain iron homeostasis in normal brain development, but these imaging profiles remain to be elucidated...

    Authors: Yuto Uchida, Hirohito Kan, Gen Furukawa, Kengo Onda, Keita Sakurai, Koji Takada, Noriyuki Matsukawa and Kenichi Oishi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:60
  38. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for normal brain development and regulates essential processes of vascular maturation and stabilization. Importantly, preterm birth is associated with reduced ...

    Authors: Niklas Ortenlöf, Suvi Vallius, Helena Karlsson, Claes Ekström, Amanda Kristiansson, Bo Holmqvist, Olga Göransson, Magdaléna Vaváková, Martin Rydén, Galen Carey, Norman Barton, David Ley and Magnus Gram
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:59
  39. Optimal shunt-based hydrocephalus treatments are heavily influenced by dynamic pressure behaviors between proximal and distal ends of shunt catheters. Posture-dependent craniospinal, arterial, venous, and abdo...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Fabian Flürenbrock, Markus Florian Oertel, Margarete Arras, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:58
  40. Flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through brain perivascular spaces (PVSs) is essential for the clearance of interstitial metabolic waste products whose accumulation and aggregation is a key mechanism of patho...

    Authors: Nikola Raicevic, Jarod M. Forer, Antonio Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ting Du, Maiken Nedergaard, Douglas H. Kelley and Kimberly Boster
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:56
  41. Authors: Ivana Lazarevic, Sasha Soldati, Josephine A. Mapunda, Henriette Rudolph, Maria Rosito, Alex Cardoso de Oliveira, Gaby Enzmann, Hideaki Nishihara, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten and Britta Engelhardt
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:55

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:39

  42. Neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), a marker of neuronal axonal degeneration, is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Assays for analysi...

    Authors: A. Jeppsson, Å. Sandelius, A. Zettergren, S. Kern, I. Skoog, K. Blennow, H. Zetterberg, C. Wikkelsø, P. Hellström and M. Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:54
  43. Hydrocephalus constitutes a complex neurological condition of heterogeneous origin characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation within the brain ventricles. The condition may dangerously e...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Dagne Barbuskaite, Fenghui Ye, Jianming Xiang, Richard F. Keep and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:53
  44. Maintaining a tight blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important prerequisite for the preservation of neurological health, though current evidence suggests it declines with age. While extracellular matrix-integri...

    Authors: Sebok K. Halder, Violaine D. Delorme-Walker and Richard Milner
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:52
  45. CNS vasculature differs from vascular networks of peripheral organs by its ability to tightly control selective material exchange across capillary barriers. Capillary permeability is mostly defined by unique c...

    Authors: Batia Bell, Shira Anzi, Esther Sasson and Ayal Ben-Zvi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:51
  46. The functions and protein expressions of the blood–brain barrier are changed throughout brain development following birth. This study aimed to develop a method to isolate brain capillaries from a single frozen...

    Authors: Yudai Hamada, Seiryo Ogata, Takeshi Masuda, Shingo Ito and Sumio Ohtsuki
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:50