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  1. Content type: Short Paper

    There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. T...

    Authors: Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Ross Copping, Christopher Moeskops and Swee Leong Yap

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:18

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  2. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Authors: A. Adam, J. Robison, J. Lu, R. Jose, N. Badran, T. Vivas-Buitrago, D. Rigamonti, A. Sattar, O. Omoush, M. Hammad, M. Dawood, M. Maghaslah, T. Belcher, K. Carson, J. Hoffberger, I. Jusué Torres…

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14(Suppl 1):15

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 14 Supplement 1

  3. Content type: Research

    The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (H...

    Authors: Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D. Doolittle and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:16

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  4. Content type: Review

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta amyloid 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as potential diagn...

    Authors: Zhongyun Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jie Zhang, Norman Relkin, Yan Xing and Yanfeng Li

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:13

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  5. Content type: Review

    A trans-agency workshop on the blood–brain interface (BBI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute and the Combat Casualty Care Research Program at the Departm...

    Authors: Margaret J. Ochocinska, Berislav V. Zlokovic, Peter C. Searson, A. Tamara Crowder, Richard P. Kraig, Julia Y. Ljubimova, Todd G. Mainprize, William A. Banks, Ronald Q. Warren, Andrei Kindzelski, William Timmer and Christina H. Liu

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:12

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  6. Content type: Research

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in...

    Authors: Stephanie M. Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R. Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L. Letendre, Ronald J. Ellis, William S. Bush, David C. Samuels, Donald R. Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant and Asha R. Kallianpur

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:11

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  7. Content type: Short Paper

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive...

    Authors: V. E. Korhonen, E. Solje, N. M. Suhonen, T. Rauramaa, R. Vanninen, A. M. Remes and V. Leinonen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:10

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  8. Content type: Research

    Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular e...

    Authors: Emma K. Hollmann, Amanda K. Bailey, Archit V. Potharazu, M. Diana Neely, Aaron B. Bowman and Ethan S. Lippmann

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:9

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  9. Content type: Review

    While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood–brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has recei...

    Authors: Jianming Xiang, Lisa J. Routhe, D. Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi and Richard F. Keep

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:8

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  10. Content type: Research

    Meningeosis neoplastica is a diffuse metastatic spread of tumor cells in the subarachnoid space. Although first recognized in 1870, systematic investigations regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constituents in...

    Authors: Marija Djukic, Ralf Trimmel, Ingelore Nagel, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Christine Stadelmann and Roland Nau

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:7

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  11. Content type: Research

    Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resista...

    Authors: Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:6

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  12. Content type: Research

    Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance ...

    Authors: Manuel Gehlen, Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Marianne Schmid Daners

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:5

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  13. Content type: Research

    The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) pati...

    Authors: Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:2

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  14. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

    Authors: Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi and Etsuro Mori

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:1

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  15. Content type: Research

    The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the ...

    Authors: Tori B. Terrell-Hall, Amanda G. Ammer, Jessica I. G. Griffith and Paul R. Lockman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:3

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  16. Content type: Research

    Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast mag...

    Authors: Joao Prola Netto, Daniel Schwartz, Csanad Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Bronwyn Hamilton and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:23

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  17. Content type: Research

    Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate t...

    Authors: Naoko H. Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida and Makoto Hosoyamada

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:22

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  18. Content type: Research

    Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dep...

    Authors: Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi and Damir Janigro

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:21

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  19. Content type: Research

    To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic...

    Authors: Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Kazuo Yamamoto

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:20

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  20. Content type: Review

    The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquapor...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:19

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  21. Content type: Research

    Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB...

    Authors: Shyanne Page, Alli Munsell and Abraham J. Al-Ahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:16

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  22. Content type: Research

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matte...

    Authors: Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott and Rodney A. Lea

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:18

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  23. Content type: Review

    Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have...

    Authors: Simon McArthur, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Elisa Maggioli, Mariella Errede, Daniela Virgintino and Egle Solito

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:17

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  24. Content type: Research

    The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood...

    Authors: Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang and Roland Nau

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:15

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  25. Content type: Research

    Transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important mediator of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the rece...

    Authors: B. Shackleton, F. Crawford and C. Bachmeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:14

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  26. Content type: Research

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and ...

    Authors: A. Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, C. Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:13

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  27. Content type: Research

    Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concent...

    Authors: Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E. Chambers and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:10

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  28. Content type: Research

    Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the b...

    Authors: Martin J. Schmidt, Christoph Rummel, Jessica Hauer, Malgorzata Kolecka, Nele Ondreka, Vanessa McClure and Joachim Roth

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:12

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  29. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to spec...

    Authors: Ryann M. Fame, Jessica T. Chang, Alex Hong, Nicole A. Aponte-Santiago and Hazel Sive

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:11

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  30. Content type: Research

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculom...

    Authors: Anuriti Aojula, Hannah Botfield, James Patterson McAllister II, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Osama Abdullah, Ann Logan and Alexandra Sinclair

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:9

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  31. Content type: Research paper

    Increased leukocyte adhesion to brain endothelial cells forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) precedes extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple scleros...

    Authors: Camilla Cerutti, Patricia Soblechero-Martin, Dongsheng Wu, Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Helga de Vries, Basil Sharrack, David Kingsley Male and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:8

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  32. Content type: Research

    Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes...

    Authors: Domenico L. Di Curzio, Emily Turner-Brannen, Xiaoyan Mao and Marc R. Del Bigio

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:7

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  33. Content type: Research

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an innovative source as an in vitro model for neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the differentiation of brain microvascular endot...

    Authors: Ronak Patel and Abraham J. Alahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:6

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  34. Content type: Review

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, ...

    Authors: David Bueno and Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:5

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  35. Content type: Short paper

    A vascular disease could be involved in pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). If so, there should be an association between INPH and cerebral microbleeds (CMB). This study aims to analyze if...

    Authors: Elias Johansson, Khalid Ambarki, Richard Birgander, Nazila Bahrami, Anders Eklund and Jan Malm

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:4

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  36. Content type: Research

    The blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) established by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium has been recognized as a potential entry site of immune cells into the central nervous system during immunosurvei...

    Authors: Ivana Lazarevic and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:2

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  37. Content type: Editorial

    Research into brain barriers and brain fluids has been advancing rapidly in recent years. This editorial aims to highlight some of the advances that have improved our understanding of this complex subject. It ...

    Authors: Lester R. Drewes, Hazel C. Jones and Richard F. Keep

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:1

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  38. Content type: Research

    A polyspecific, intrathecal humoral immune response against the neurotropic viruses, measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus, called “MRZ reaction” (MRZR), is present in the majority of patients with multi...

    Authors: Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Matthias Eckenweiler, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:27

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  39. Content type: Research

    Shunt obstruction in the treatment of hydrocephalus is poorly understood, is multi-factorial, and in many cases is modeled ineffectively. Several mechanisms may be responsible, one of which involves shunt infi...

    Authors: Carolyn Harris, Kelsie Pearson, Kristen Hadley, Shanshan Zhu, Samuel Browd, Brian W. Hanak and William Shain

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:26

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  40. Content type: Study protocol

    Imaging of the brain surface vasculature following inflammatory insults is critical to study structural and functional changes in the living brain under normal and pathological conditions. Although there have ...

    Authors: Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Slava Rom and Yuri Persidsky

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:24

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  41. Content type: Research

    In the absence of a true lymphatic system in the brain parenchyma, alternative clearance pathways for excess fluid and waste products have been proposed. Suggested mechanisms for clearance implicate a role for...

    Authors: Beatrice Bedussi, Monique G. J. T. B. van Lier, Jonas W. Bartstra, Judith de Vos, Maria Siebes, Ed VanBavel and Erik N. T. P. Bakker

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:23

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  42. Content type: Research

    Due to anatomical restrictions, the inflammatory response to intracerebral bacterial infections exposes swollen brain tissues to pressure and ischemia, resulting in life-threatening damage. Rapid diagnosis and...

    Authors: Amir Ramezani, Katarina Nägga, Oskar Hansson, Johanna Lönn, Johanna Sjöwall, Fateme Katoozian, Sepahdar Mansouri and Fariba Nayeri

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:22

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  43. Content type: Poster presentation

    Authors: Patricia Anne Haylock-Vize, Eleanor Carter, Syed Shah, Claudia Craven, Aswin Chari, Simon Thompson, Edward W Dyson, Samir Matloob, Andrew Stevens, Huan Wee Chan, Jinendra Ekanayake, Ahmed Toma, Michelle Leemans and Laurence D Watkins

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12(Suppl 1):P18

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1