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  1. Review

    The choroid plexus as a site of damage in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and its role in responding to injury

    While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood–brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has recei...

    Jianming Xiang, Lisa J. Routhe, D. Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi and Richard F. Keep

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:8

    Published on: 28 March 2017

  2. Research

    Nrf2 signaling increases expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C mRNA transcripts at the blood–brain barrier following hypoxia-reoxygenation stress

    Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resista...

    Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:6

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  3. Research

    The MRZ reaction in primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) pati...

    Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:2

    Published on: 7 February 2017

  4. Research

    A change in brain white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a tract-based spatial statistics study

    The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

    Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi and Etsuro Mori

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:1

    Published on: 30 January 2017

  5. Research

    Permeability across a novel microfluidic blood-tumor barrier model

    The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the ...

    Tori B. Terrell-Hall, Amanda G. Ammer, Jessica I. G. Griffith and Paul R. Lockman

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:3

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  6. Research

    Misleading early blood volume changes obtained using ferumoxytol-based magnetic resonance imaging perfusion in high grade glial neoplasms treated with bevacizumab

    Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast mag...

    Joao Prola Netto, Daniel Schwartz, Csanad Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Bronwyn Hamilton and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:23

    Published on: 20 December 2016

  7. Research

    Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of urate transporters GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2, and URAT1 in the murine brain

    Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate t...

    Naoko H. Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida and Makoto Hosoyamada

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:22

    Published on: 12 December 2016

  8. Research

    Improving the clinical management of traumatic brain injury through the pharmacokinetic modeling of peripheral blood biomarkers

    Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dep...

    Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi and Damir Janigro

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:21

    Published on: 30 November 2016

  9. Research

    Early and delayed assessments of quantitative gait measures to improve the tap test as a predictor of shunt effectiveness in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic...

    Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Kazuo Yamamoto

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:20

    Published on: 22 November 2016

  10. Research

    A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS?

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matte...

    Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott and Rodney A. Lea

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:18

    Published on: 22 September 2016

  11. Review

    The restorative role of annexin A1 at the blood–brain barrier

    Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have...

    Simon McArthur, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Elisa Maggioli, Mariella Errede, Daniela Virgintino and Egle Solito

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:17

    Published on: 21 September 2016

  12. Research

    Small cisterno-lumbar gradient of phosphorylated Tau protein in geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood...

    Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang and Roland Nau

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:15

    Published on: 31 August 2016

  13. Research

    Amyloid mis-metabolism in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and ...

    A. Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, C. Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:13

    Published on: 29 July 2016

  14. Research

    In vitro characterization of pralidoxime transport and acetylcholinesterase reactivation across MDCK cells and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)

    Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concent...

    Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E. Chambers and Peter C. Searson

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:10

    Published on: 11 July 2016

  15. Research

    Increased CSF aquaporin-4, and interleukin-6 levels in dogs with idiopathic communicating internal hydrocephalus and a decrease after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting

    Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the b...

    Martin J. Schmidt, Christoph Rummel, Jessica Hauer, Malgorzata Kolecka, Nele Ondreka, Vanessa McClure and Joachim Roth

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:12

    Published on: 29 June 2016

  16. Research

    Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculom...

    Anuriti Aojula, Hannah Botfield, James Patterson McAllister II, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Osama Abdullah, Ann Logan and Alexandra Sinclair

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:9

    Published on: 31 May 2016

  17. Research paper

    MicroRNA-155 contributes to shear-resistant leukocyte adhesion to human brain endothelium in vitro

    Increased leukocyte adhesion to brain endothelial cells forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) precedes extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple scleros...

    Camilla Cerutti, Patricia Soblechero-Martin, Dongsheng Wu, Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Helga de Vries, Basil Sharrack, David Kingsley Male and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:8

    Published on: 31 May 2016

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