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  1. Research

    Early and delayed assessments of quantitative gait measures to improve the tap test as a predictor of shunt effectiveness in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic...

    Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Kazuo Yamamoto

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:20

    Published on: 22 November 2016

  2. Research

    A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS?

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matte...

    Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott and Rodney A. Lea

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:18

    Published on: 22 September 2016

  3. Review

    The restorative role of annexin A1 at the blood–brain barrier

    Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have...

    Simon McArthur, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Elisa Maggioli, Mariella Errede, Daniela Virgintino and Egle Solito

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:17

    Published on: 21 September 2016

  4. Research

    Small cisterno-lumbar gradient of phosphorylated Tau protein in geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood...

    Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang and Roland Nau

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:15

    Published on: 31 August 2016

  5. Research

    Amyloid mis-metabolism in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and ...

    A. Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, C. Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:13

    Published on: 29 July 2016

  6. Research

    In vitro characterization of pralidoxime transport and acetylcholinesterase reactivation across MDCK cells and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)

    Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concent...

    Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E. Chambers and Peter C. Searson

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:10

    Published on: 11 July 2016

  7. Research

    Increased CSF aquaporin-4, and interleukin-6 levels in dogs with idiopathic communicating internal hydrocephalus and a decrease after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting

    Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the b...

    Martin J. Schmidt, Christoph Rummel, Jessica Hauer, Malgorzata Kolecka, Nele Ondreka, Vanessa McClure and Joachim Roth

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:12

    Published on: 29 June 2016

  8. Research

    Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculom...

    Anuriti Aojula, Hannah Botfield, James Patterson McAllister II, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Osama Abdullah, Ann Logan and Alexandra Sinclair

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:9

    Published on: 31 May 2016

  9. Research paper

    MicroRNA-155 contributes to shear-resistant leukocyte adhesion to human brain endothelium in vitro

    Increased leukocyte adhesion to brain endothelial cells forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) precedes extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple scleros...

    Camilla Cerutti, Patricia Soblechero-Martin, Dongsheng Wu, Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Helga de Vries, Basil Sharrack, David Kingsley Male and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:8

    Published on: 31 May 2016

  10. Review

    Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, ...

    David Bueno and Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:5

    Published on: 15 March 2016

  11. Short paper

    Cerebral microbleeds in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    A vascular disease could be involved in pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). If so, there should be an association between INPH and cerebral microbleeds (CMB). This study aims to analyze if...

    Elias Johansson, Khalid Ambarki, Richard Birgander, Nazila Bahrami, Anders Eklund and Jan Malm

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:4

    Published on: 10 February 2016

  12. Research

    Modeling immune functions of the mouse blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in vitro: primary rather than immortalized mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells are suited to study immune cell migration across this brain barrier

    The blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) established by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium has been recognized as a potential entry site of immune cells into the central nervous system during immunosurvei...

    Ivana Lazarevic and Britta Engelhardt

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:2

    Published on: 29 January 2016

  13. Research

    The intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response in neurosarcoidosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and autoimmune encephalitis compared to multiple sclerosis in a tertiary hospital cohort

    A polyspecific, intrathecal humoral immune response against the neurotropic viruses, measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus, called “MRZ reaction” (MRZR), is present in the majority of patients with multi...

    Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Matthias Eckenweiler, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:27

    Published on: 13 December 2015

  14. Research

    Fabrication of three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds for modeling shunt failure by tissue obstruction in hydrocephalus

    Shunt obstruction in the treatment of hydrocephalus is poorly understood, is multi-factorial, and in many cases is modeled ineffectively. Several mechanisms may be responsible, one of which involves shunt infi...

    Carolyn Harris, Kelsie Pearson, Kristen Hadley, Shanshan Zhu, Samuel Browd, Brian W. Hanak and William Shain

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:26

    Published on: 14 November 2015

  15. Study protocol

    Craniula: A cranial window technique for prolonged imaging of brain surface vasculature with simultaneous adjacent intracerebral injection

    Imaging of the brain surface vasculature following inflammatory insults is critical to study structural and functional changes in the living brain under normal and pathological conditions. Although there have ...

    Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Slava Rom and Yuri Persidsky

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:24

    Published on: 27 October 2015

  16. Research

    Clearance from the mouse brain by convection of interstitial fluid towards the ventricular system

    In the absence of a true lymphatic system in the brain parenchyma, alternative clearance pathways for excess fluid and waste products have been proposed. Suggested mechanisms for clearance implicate a role for...

    Beatrice Bedussi, Monique G. J. T. B. van Lier, Jonas W. Bartstra, Judith de Vos, Maria Siebes, Ed VanBavel and Erik N. T. P. Bakker

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:23

    Published on: 5 October 2015

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