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  1. Content type: Review

    This is a report on the CNS barrier congress held in London, UK, March 22–23rd 2017 and sponsored by Kisaco Research Ltd. The two 1-day sessions were chaired by John Greenwood and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes,...

    Authors: John Greenwood, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Hazel C. Jones, Alan W. Stitt, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Ignacio A. Romero, Matthew Campbell, Gert Fricker, Birger Brodin, Heiko Manninga, Pieter J. Gaillard, Markus Schwaninger, Carl Webster, Krzysztof B. Wicher and Michel Khrestchatisky

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:31

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:3

  2. Content type: Research

    Atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker, has been used as a model drug for studying passive permeability of biological membranes such as the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the intestinal epithelium. However, the e...

    Authors: Xiaomei Chen, Tim Slättengren, Elizabeth C. M. de Lange, David E. Smith and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:30

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  3. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Authors: Andrzej Małecki, Janina Skipor-Lahuta, Michal Toborek, N. Joan Abbott, David A. Antonetti, Enming Joe Su, Daniel A. Lawrence, Müge Atış, Uğur Akcan, Canan Uğur Yılmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Poyraz Düzgün, Umut Deniz Ceylan, Nadir Arıcan, Serçin Karahüseyinoğlu, Gizem Nur Şahin…

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14(Suppl 2):27

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 14 Supplement 2

  4. Content type: Research

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investi...

    Authors: Ken Takizawa, Mitsunori Matsumae, Naokazu Hayashi, Akihiro Hirayama, Satoshi Yatsushiro and Kagayaki Kuroda

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:29

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  5. Content type: Correction

    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that the full funding acknowledgement is missing from the original article.

    Authors: Amauri Dalla Corte, Carolina F. M. de Souza, Maurício Anés, Fabio K. Maeda, Armelle Lokossou, Leonardo M. Vedolin, Maria Gabriela Longo, Monica M. Ferreira, Solanger G. P. Perrone, Olivier Balédent and Roberto Giugliani

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:28

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:23

  6. Content type: Research

    Cisplatin neuro-, oto-, and nephrotoxicity are major problems in children with malignant tumors, including medulloblastoma, negatively impacting educational achievement, socioemotional development, and overall...

    Authors: Edit Dósa, Krisztina Heltai, Tamás Radovits, Gabriella Molnár, Judit Kapocsi, Béla Merkely, Rongwei Fu, Nancy D. Doolittle, Gerda B. Tóth, Zachary Urdang and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    A classification of cardiac- and respiratory-driven components of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion has been demonstrated using echo planar imaging and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse techniques of magnet...

    Authors: Ken Takizawa, Mitsunori Matsumae, Saeko Sunohara, Satoshi Yatsushiro and Kagayaki Kuroda

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:25

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  8. Content type: Research

    Very little is known about the incidence and prevalence of hydrocephalus in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). The biggest challenge is to distinguish communicating hydrocephalus from ventricular dilat...

    Authors: Amauri Dalla Corte, Carolina F. M. de Souza, Maurício Anés, Fabio K. Maeda, Armelle Lokossou, Leonardo M. Vedolin, Maria Gabriela Longo, Monica M. Ferreira, Solanger G. P. Perrone, Olivier Balédent and Roberto Giugliani

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:23

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:28

  9. Content type: Research

    Invasive tests measuring resistance to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) outflow and the effect of temporary drainage of CSF are used to select candidates affected by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) ...

    Authors: Francesco Tuniz, Maria Caterina Vescovi, Daniele Bagatto, Daniela Drigo, Maria Cristina De Colle, Marta Maieron and Miran Skrap

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:24

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  10. Content type: Research

    Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involve...

    Authors: Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A. Miller, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik and Jörg W. Bartsch

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:22

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  11. Content type: Erratum

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:21

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:O35

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2015 12:O12

  12. Content type: Research

    The endothelial cells that form the lumen of capillaries and microvessels are an important component of the blood–brain barrier. Cell phenotype is regulated by transducing a range of biomechanical and biochemi...

    Authors: Jackson G. DeStefano, Zinnia S. Xu, Ashley J. Williams, Nahom Yimam and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:20

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  13. Content type: Review

    Despite decades of research, no compelling non-surgical therapies have been developed for foetal hydrocephalus. So far, most efforts have pointed to repairing disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow...

    Authors: M. Guerra, J. L. Blázquez and E. M. Rodríguez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:19

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  14. Content type: Short Paper

    There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. T...

    Authors: Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Ross Copping, Christopher Moeskops and Swee Leong Yap

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:18

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  15. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Authors: A. Adam, J. Robison, J. Lu, R. Jose, N. Badran, T. Vivas-Buitrago, D. Rigamonti, A. Sattar, O. Omoush, M. Hammad, M. Dawood, M. Maghaslah, T. Belcher, K. Carson, J. Hoffberger, I. Jusué Torres…

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14(Suppl 1):15

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 14 Supplement 1

  16. Content type: Research

    The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (H...

    Authors: Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D. Doolittle and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:16

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  17. Content type: Review

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta amyloid 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as potential diagn...

    Authors: Zhongyun Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jie Zhang, Norman Relkin, Yan Xing and Yanfeng Li

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:13

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  18. Content type: Review

    A trans-agency workshop on the blood–brain interface (BBI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute and the Combat Casualty Care Research Program at the Departm...

    Authors: Margaret J. Ochocinska, Berislav V. Zlokovic, Peter C. Searson, A. Tamara Crowder, Richard P. Kraig, Julia Y. Ljubimova, Todd G. Mainprize, William A. Banks, Ronald Q. Warren, Andrei Kindzelski, William Timmer and Christina H. Liu

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:12

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  19. Content type: Research

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in...

    Authors: Stephanie M. Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R. Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L. Letendre, Ronald J. Ellis, William S. Bush, David C. Samuels, Donald R. Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant and Asha R. Kallianpur

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:11

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  20. Content type: Short Paper

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive...

    Authors: V. E. Korhonen, E. Solje, N. M. Suhonen, T. Rauramaa, R. Vanninen, A. M. Remes and V. Leinonen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:10

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  21. Content type: Research

    Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular e...

    Authors: Emma K. Hollmann, Amanda K. Bailey, Archit V. Potharazu, M. Diana Neely, Aaron B. Bowman and Ethan S. Lippmann

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:9

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  22. Content type: Review

    While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood–brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has recei...

    Authors: Jianming Xiang, Lisa J. Routhe, D. Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi and Richard F. Keep

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:8

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  23. Content type: Research

    Meningeosis neoplastica is a diffuse metastatic spread of tumor cells in the subarachnoid space. Although first recognized in 1870, systematic investigations regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constituents in...

    Authors: Marija Djukic, Ralf Trimmel, Ingelore Nagel, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Christine Stadelmann and Roland Nau

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:7

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  24. Content type: Research

    Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resista...

    Authors: Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:6

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  25. Content type: Research

    Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance ...

    Authors: Manuel Gehlen, Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Marianne Schmid Daners

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:5

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  26. Content type: Research

    The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) pati...

    Authors: Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:2

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  27. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

    Authors: Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi and Etsuro Mori

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:1

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  28. Content type: Research

    The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the ...

    Authors: Tori B. Terrell-Hall, Amanda G. Ammer, Jessica I. G. Griffith and Paul R. Lockman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:3

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  29. Content type: Research

    Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast mag...

    Authors: Joao Prola Netto, Daniel Schwartz, Csanad Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Bronwyn Hamilton and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:23

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  30. Content type: Research

    Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate t...

    Authors: Naoko H. Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida and Makoto Hosoyamada

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:22

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  31. Content type: Research

    Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dep...

    Authors: Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi and Damir Janigro

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:21

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  32. Content type: Research

    To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic...

    Authors: Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Kazuo Yamamoto

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:20

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  33. Content type: Review

    The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquapor...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:19

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  34. Content type: Research

    Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB...

    Authors: Shyanne Page, Alli Munsell and Abraham J. Al-Ahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:16

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  35. Content type: Research

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matte...

    Authors: Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott and Rodney A. Lea

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:18

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  36. Content type: Review

    Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have...

    Authors: Simon McArthur, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Elisa Maggioli, Mariella Errede, Daniela Virgintino and Egle Solito

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:17

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  37. Content type: Research

    The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood...

    Authors: Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang and Roland Nau

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:15

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  38. Content type: Research

    Transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important mediator of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the rece...

    Authors: B. Shackleton, F. Crawford and C. Bachmeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:14

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  39. Content type: Research

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and ...

    Authors: A. Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, C. Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:13

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  40. Content type: Research

    Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concent...

    Authors: Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E. Chambers and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:10

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  41. Content type: Research

    Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the b...

    Authors: Martin J. Schmidt, Christoph Rummel, Jessica Hauer, Malgorzata Kolecka, Nele Ondreka, Vanessa McClure and Joachim Roth

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:12

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  42. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to spec...

    Authors: Ryann M. Fame, Jessica T. Chang, Alex Hong, Nicole A. Aponte-Santiago and Hazel Sive

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:11

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  43. Content type: Research

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculom...

    Authors: Anuriti Aojula, Hannah Botfield, James Patterson McAllister II, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Osama Abdullah, Ann Logan and Alexandra Sinclair

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:9

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  44. Content type: Research paper

    Increased leukocyte adhesion to brain endothelial cells forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) precedes extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple scleros...

    Authors: Camilla Cerutti, Patricia Soblechero-Martin, Dongsheng Wu, Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Helga de Vries, Basil Sharrack, David Kingsley Male and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:8

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  45. Content type: Research

    Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes...

    Authors: Domenico L. Di Curzio, Emily Turner-Brannen, Xiaoyan Mao and Marc R. Del Bigio

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:7

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  46. Content type: Research

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an innovative source as an in vitro model for neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the differentiation of brain microvascular endot...

    Authors: Ronak Patel and Abraham J. Alahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:6

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  47. Content type: Review

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, ...

    Authors: David Bueno and Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:5

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