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  1. Rehabilitation in iNPH is suggested to be an important factor to improve patients’ functions but there are lack of clinical trials evaluating the effect of rehabilitation interventions after shunt surgery in i...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Lena Kollén, Per Hellström, Katarina Owen, Åsa Lundgren Nilsson, Carsten Wikkelsø, Mats Tullberg and Fredrik Lundin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

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  2. Chronic mild hypoxia (CMH, 8% O2) stimulates robust vascular remodelling in the brain, but it also triggers transient vascular disruption. This raises the fundamental question: is the vascular leak an unwanted si...

    Authors: Sebok K. Halder and Richard Milner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:50

    Content type: Research

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  3. Many animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus; most of these have been rodent models whose lissencephalic cerebral cortex may not respond to ventriculomegaly in the same way a...

    Authors: James P. McAllister II, Michael R. Talcott, Albert M. Isaacs, Sarah H. Zwick, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Alexis L. Hartman, Ryan N. Dilger, Stephen A. Fleming, Rebecca K. Golden, Diego M. Morales, Carolyn A. Harris and David D. Limbrick Jr

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  4. Repetitive head trauma has been associated with the accumulation of tau species in the brain. Our prior work showed brain vascular mural cells contribute to tau processing in the brain, and that these cells pr...

    Authors: Maxwell Eisenbaum, Andrew Pearson, Arissa Gratkowski, Benoit Mouzon, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford, Joseph Ojo and Corbin Bachmeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  5. Disruption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange in the spinal cord is likely to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases that involve abnormal fluid accumulation, including...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

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  6. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that occupies the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces within and around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is a dynamic signaling milieu that transports nutrien...

    Authors: Vania Sepúlveda, Felipe Maurelia, Maryori González, Jaime Aguayo and Teresa Caprile

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:45

    Content type: Review

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  7. Destruction of blood–brain barrier (BBB) ​​is one of the main mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Frizzled-7 is a key protein expressed on the surface of endothelial ...

    Authors: Wei He, Qin Lu, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Xin Hu, John H. Zhang, Haibin Dai and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  8. The pathways that control protein transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) remain poorly characterized. Despite great advances in recapitulating the human BBB in vitro, current models are not suitable fo...

    Authors: Claire Simonneau, Martina Duschmalé, Alina Gavrilov, Nathalie Brandenberg, Sylke Hoehnel, Camilla Ceroni, Evodie Lassalle, Elena Kassianidou, Hendrik Knoetgen, Jens Niewoehner and Roberto Villaseñor

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:43

    Content type: Research

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  9. C-X-C chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is frequently elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a variety of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, has been detected in meningeal B cell aggregates in br...

    Authors: Christine Harrer, Ferdinand Otto, Georg Pilz, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Hitzl, Peter Wipfler and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:40

    Content type: Research

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  10. Thrombin has been implicated in playing a role in hydrocephalus development following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). However, the mechanisms underlying the sex differences to the detrimental effects of thr...

    Authors: Kang Peng, Sravanthi Koduri, Fan Xia, Feng Gao, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  11. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains unclear. Little is known about the pre-symptomatic stage. This study aimed to investigate the association of neuropsychological data with...

    Authors: Doortje C. Engel, Lukas Pirpamer, Edith Hofer, Reinhold Schmidt and Cornelia Brendle

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  12. In vitro models based on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are among the most versatile tools in blood–brain barrier research for testing drug penetration into the brain and how this is affected by eff...

    Authors: Birthe Gericke, Saskia Borsdorf, Inka Wienböker, Andreas Noack, Sandra Noack and Wolfgang Löscher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research

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  13. Vascular dementia (VaD) and atypical parkinsonism often present with symptoms that can resemble idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and enlarged cerebral ventricles, and can be challenging differen...

    Authors: David Fällmar, Oliver Andersson, Lena Kilander, Malin Löwenmark, Dag Nyholm and Johan Virhammar

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:35

    Content type: Research

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  14. Genetic variation in a population has an influence on the manifestation of monogenic as well as multifactorial disorders, with the underlying genetic contribution dependent on several interacting variants. Com...

    Authors: Johanna Schaffenrath, Sheng-Fu Huang, Tania Wyss, Mauro Delorenzi and Annika Keller

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  15. Implantation of ventricular catheters (VCs) to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard approach to treat hydrocephalus. VCs fail frequently due to tissue obstructing the lumen via the drainage holes. Mec...

    Authors: Prashant Hariharan, Jeffrey Sondheimer, Alexandra Petroj, Jacob Gluski, Andrew Jea, William E. Whitehead, Sandeep Sood, Steven D. Ham, Brandon G. Rocque, Neena I. Marupudi, James P. McAllister II, David Limbrick, Marc R. Del Bigio and Carolyn A. Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  16. SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus (CoV), is known to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a number of non-respiratory complications, particularly in older male patients with prior health conditions, such as ...

    Authors: Conor McQuaid, Molly Brady and Rashid Deane

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:32

    Content type: Review

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  17. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrated colorless brain fluid that circulates within brain spaces like the ventricular cavities, subarachnoid space, and the spine. Its continuous flow serves many prima...

    Authors: Vijay Kumar, Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Ravi Shankar Goutam, Soochul Park and Jaebong Kim

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:31

    Content type: Review

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  18. Periventricular extracellular oedema, myelin damage, inflammation, and glial reactions are common neuropathological events that occur in the brain in congenital hydrocephalus. The periventricular white matter ...

    Authors: Betsaida Ojeda-Pérez, José A. Campos-Sandoval, María García-Bonilla, Casimiro Cárdenas-García, Patricia Páez-González and Antonio J. Jiménez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  19. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are one of the hallmarks of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), but the pathological mechanisms underlying WMHs remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that extracellular ...

    Authors: Xinfeng Yu, Xinzhen Yin, Hui Hong, Shuyue Wang, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Fan Zhang, Ofer Pasternak, Ruiting Zhang, Linglin Yang, Min Lou, Minming Zhang and Peiyu Huang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  20. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-borne agents and potentially harmful xenobiotics. Our group’s previous data has shown that tobacco ...

    Authors: Hossam Kadry, Behnam Noorani, Ulrich Bickel, Thomas J. Abbruscato and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  21. The entry of blood-borne molecules into the brain is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Various physical, transport and immune properties tightly regulate molecule movement between the blood and the ...

    Authors: Steffen E. Storck, Magdalena Kurtyka and Claus U. Pietrzik

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:27

    Content type: Short paper

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  22. Transferrin receptor (TfR1) mediated enhanced brain delivery of antibodies have been studied extensively in preclinical settings. However, the brain pharmacokinetics, i.e. brain entry, distribution and elimina...

    Authors: Rebecca Faresjö, Gillian Bonvicini, Xiaotian T. Fang, Ximena Aguilar, Dag Sehlin and Stina Syvänen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  23. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis (LIAS) are two forms of chronic adult hydrocephalus of different aetiology. We analysed overnight intracranial pres...

    Authors: Lauren M. Green, Thomas Wallis, Martin U. Schuhmann and Matthias Jaeger

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

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  24. This editorial discusses advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2020. Topics include: the cerebral endothelium and the neurovascular unit; the choroid plexus; the meninges; cerebrospinal fluid a...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:24

    Content type: Editorial

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  25. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible CNS disease characterized by disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition might be involve...

    Authors: Karolina Minta, Anna Jeppsson, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Erik Portelius, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mats Tullberg and Ulf Andreasson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

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  26. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and cognitive decline. Symptoms are potentially reversible and treatment is based on cerebrospinal flu...

    Authors: Samanta Fabrício Blattes da Rocha, Pedro André Kowacs, Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza, Matheus Kahakura Franco Pedro, Ricardo Ramina and Hélio A. Ghizoni Teive

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  27. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is the leading cause of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). CCH is strongly associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter lesions (WMLs) in CSVD....

    Authors: Zhengyu Sun, Chenhao Gao, Dandan Gao, Ruihua Sun, Wei Li, Fengyu Wang, Yanliang Wang, Huixia Cao, Guoyu Zhou, Jiewen Zhang and Junkui Shang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:21

    Content type: Research

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  28. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered an age-dependent chronic communicating hydrocephalus associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malabsorption; however, the aetiology of ventricular...

    Authors: Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa and Kazuhiko Nozaki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:20

    Content type: Review

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  29. Although widely used in the evaluation of the diseased, normal intracranial pressure and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure remain sparsely documented. Intracranial pressure is different from lumbar cerebrosp...

    Authors: Nicolas Hernandez Norager, Markus Harboe Olsen, Sarah Hornshoej Pedersen, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marek Czosnyka and Marianne Juhler

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  30. The cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSF TT) is used for selecting shunt surgery candidates among patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the CS...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Andreas Eleftheriou and Fredrik Lundin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  31. The vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) have unique barrier properties. The endothelial cells (ECs) which comprise the CNS vessels contribute to the barrier via strong tight junctions, specific transpo...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Ihezie, Iny Elizebeth Mathew, Devin W. McBride, Ari Dienel, Spiros L. Blackburn and Peeyush Kumar Thankamani Pandit

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:17

    Content type: Review

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  32. Several central nervous system diseases are associated with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow patterns and have typically been characterized in vivo by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T...

    Authors: Per Kristian Eide, Lars Magnus Valnes, Erika Kristina Lindstrøm, Kent-Andre Mardal and Geir Ringstad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  33. The administration of microbial neuraminidase into the brain ventricular cavities of rodents represents a model of acute aseptic neuroinflammation. Ependymal cell death and hydrocephalus are unique features of...

    Authors: María del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Ana León-Rodríguez, María Dolores López-Ávalos and Jesús M. Grondona

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  34. Central nervous system diseases involving the parenchymal microvessels are frequently associated with a ‘microvasculopathy’, which includes different levels of neurovascular unit (NVU) dysfunction, including b...

    Authors: Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Mariella Errede, Giovanna Longo, Antonio d’Amati and Daniela Virgintino

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:14

    Content type: Review

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  35. Astrocytes (AC) are essential for brain homeostasis. Much data suggests that AC support and protect the vascular endothelium, but increasing evidence indicates that during injury conditions they may lose their...

    Authors: Julia Baumann, Chih-Chieh Tsao, Sheng-Fu Huang, Max Gassmann and Omolara O. Ogunshola

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:13

    Content type: Research

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  36. Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging, PC MRI, is a valuable tool allowing for non-invasive quantification of CSF dynamics, but has lacked adoption in clinical practice for Chiari malformation diagnostics....

    Authors: Gwendolyn Williams, Suraj Thyagaraj, Audrey Fu, John Oshinski, Daniel Giese, Alexander C. Bunck, Eleonora Fornari, Francesco Santini, Mark Luciano, Francis Loth and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  37. Studies of mammalian CSF dynamics have been focused on three things: paravascular flow, pressure and pulsatility, and “bulk” flow; and three (respective) potential motive forces have been identified: vasomotor...

    Authors: Bruce A. Young, James Adams, Jonathan M. Beary, Kent-Andre Mardal, Robert Schneider and Tatyana Kondrashova

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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  38. Failure to clear Aβ from the brain is partly responsible for Aβ brain accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A critical protein for clearing Aβ across the blood-brain barrier is the efflux transporter P-gly...

    Authors: Yujie Ding, Yu Zhong, Andrea Baldeshwiler, Erin L. Abner, Björn Bauer and Anika M. S. Hartz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  39. Pilz et al. (Fluids Barriers CNS 17:7; 2020) investigated how CSF CXCL13 concentrations are influenced by CXCL13 serum concentrations and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) function, comparing the impact of serum CXCL1...

    Authors: Krista D. DiSano, Francesca Gilli and Andrew R. Pachner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:9

    Content type: Commentary

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  40. Astronauts undergoing long-duration spaceflight are exposed to numerous health risks, including Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome (SANS), a spectrum of ophthalmic changes that can result in permanen...

    Authors: Arslan M. Zahid, Bryn Martin, Stephanie Collins, John N. Oshinski and C. Ross Ethier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  41. Neonatal encephalopathy often leads to lifelong disabilities with limited treatments currently available. The brain vasculature is an important factor in many neonatal neurological disorders but there is a lac...

    Authors: E. Axel Andersson, Carina Mallard and C. Joakim Ek

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  42. Adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) play an important role in drug pharmacokinetics by actively effluxing their substrates at barrier interfaces, including the blo...

    Authors: Liam M. Koehn, Katarzyna M. Dziegielewska, Mark D. Habgood, Yifan Huang and Norman R. Saunders

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

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  43. It has been shown that idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in children is associated with cerebral hyperemia, which induces an increase in cerebral venous pressure. The current literature suggests venou...

    Authors: Alexander Robert Bateman, Grant Alexander Bateman and Tracie Barber

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

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  44. Approximately 30% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt systems for hydrocephalus fail within the first year and 98% of all patients will have shunt failure in their lifetime. Obstruction remains the most common ...

    Authors: Carolyn A. Harris, Diego M. Morales, Rooshan Arshad, James P. McAllister II and David D. Limbrick Jr

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  45. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. It is an irreversible condition marked by irreversible cognitive loss, commonly attributed to the loss of hippocampal neurons due ...

    Authors: Snehal Raut, Ronak Patel and Abraham J. Al-Ahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:3

    Content type: Research

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  46. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a growing health concern due to the increased use of low-cost improvised explosive devices in modern warfare. Mild blast exposures are common amongst military per...

    Authors: Gozde Uzunalli, Seth Herr, Alexandra M. Dieterly, Riyi Shi and L. Tiffany Lyle

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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