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  1. Hydrocephalus is characterized by abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles and causes motor impairments. The mechanisms underlying the motor changes remain elusive. Enlargement o...

    Authors: Li-Jin Chen, Jeng-Rung Chen and Guo-Fang Tseng
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:95
  2. Cerebral aneurysms are more likely to form at bifurcations in the vasculature, where disturbed fluid is prevalent due to flow separation at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. While previous studies have demon...

    Authors: Nesrine Bouhrira, Brandon J. DeOre, Kiet A. Tran and Peter A. Galie
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:94
  3. Disruption of brain barriers is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal surface antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis (NSAE), but few studies have focused on their relationship. We aime...

    Authors: Qi-Lun Lai, Meng-Ting Cai, Yang Zheng, Gao-Li Fang, Bing-Qing Du, Chun-Hong Shen, Jia-Jia Wang, Qin-Jie Weng and Yin-Xi Zhang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:93
  4. Folates are a family of B9 vitamins that serve as one-carbon donors critical to biosynthetic processes required for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS) in mammals. Folate transport...

    Authors: Vishal Sangha, Md. Tozammel Hoque, Jeffrey T. Henderson and Reina Bendayan
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:92
  5. Authors: Yong Zhang, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Yashwardhan Ghanwatkar, Sejal Sharma, Saeideh Nozohouri, Elizabeth Burks, Alexander Mdzinarishvili, Zijuan Liu and Thomas J. Abbruscato
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:91

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:46

  6. Apparent permeability of the blood brain barrier to hydrophilic markers has been shown to be higher in the developing brain. Apart from synthesis in situ, any substance detected in the brain parenchyma can origin...

    Authors: Fiona Qiu, Yifan Huang, Norman R. Saunders, Mark D. Habgood and Katarzyna M. Dziegielewska
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:90
  7. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a multifactorial disease presenting with a classical symptom triad of cognitive decline, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. The symptoms can be allevi...

    Authors: Jani Sirkka, Laura Säisänen, Petro Julkunen, Mervi Könönen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ville Leinonen and Nils Danner
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:89
  8. While aging is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD), emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) are also major contributors. Indeed, several studies have d...

    Authors: Maria Vargas-Soria, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Angel del Marco, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Maria Jose Carranza-Naval, Maria Calvo-Rodriguez, Susanne J. van Veluw, Alan W. Stitt, Rafael Simó, Brian J. Bacskai, Carmen Infante-Garcia and Monica Garcia-Alloza
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:88
  9. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a pivotal role in brain health and disease. In the BBB, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are connected by tight junctions which regulate paracellular transport,...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Matthew B. Sklar, Gabrielle N. Grifno, Renée F. Nerenberg, Justin Zhou, Robert Ye, Jackson G. DeStefano, Zhaobin Guo, Ria Jha, John J. Jamieson, Nan Zhao and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:87
  10. Intracranial pressure (ICP) has been thought to vary diurnally. This study evaluates diurnal ICP measurements and quantifies changes in ICP occurring with changes in body posture in active idiopathic intracran...

    Authors: James L Mitchell, Rebecca Buckham, Hannah Lyons, Jessica K Walker, Andreas Yiangou, Matilde Sassani, Mark Thaller, Olivia Grech, Zerin Alimajstorovic, Marianne Julher, Georgios Tsermoulas, Kristian Brock, Susan P Mollan and Alexandra J Sinclair
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:85
  11. Authors: Vincent Zuba, Jonathane Furon, Mathys Bellemain-Sagnard, Sara Martinez de Lazarrondo, Laurent Lebouvier, Marina Rubio, Yannick Hommet, Maxime Gauberti, Denis Vivien and Carine Ali
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:83

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:80

  12. Impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and play a crucial role in brain health in older people; nonetheless, such age-related changes h...

    Authors: Yosuke Hidaka, Mamoru Hashimoto, Takashi Suehiro, Ryuji Fukuhara, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Naoko Tsunoda, Asuka Koyama, Kazuki Honda, Yusuke Miyagawa, Kazuhiro Yoshiura, Shuken Boku, Kazunari Ishii, Manabu Ikeda and Minoru Takebayashi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:82
  13. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease that occurs when pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis cross the meningeal blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (mBCSFB) and infect the meninges. Due to the huma...

    Authors: Leo M. Endres, Marvin Jungblut, Mustafa Divyapicigil, Markus Sauer, Christian Stigloher, Myron Christodoulides, Brandon J. Kim and Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:81
  14. In the vascular compartment, the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) promotes fibrinolysis, justifying its clinical use against vasculo-occlusive diseases. Accumulating evidence shows that ...

    Authors: Vincent Zuba, Jonathane Furon, Mathys Bellemain-Sagnard, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Laurent Lebouvier, Marina Rubio, Yannick Hommet, Maxime Gauberti, Denis Vivien and Carine Ali
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:80

    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:83

  15. The blood brain barrier (BBB) limits the therapeutic perspective for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Previously we found an anti-mouse transferrin receptor (TfR) VHH (Nb62) that was able to deliver a b...

    Authors: Yessica Wouters, Tom Jaspers, Laura Rué, Lutgarde Serneels, Bart De Strooper and Maarten Dewilde
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:79
  16. The composition of tissue obstructing neuroprosthetic devices is largely composed of inflammatory cells with a significant astrocyte component. In a first-of-its-kind study, we profile the astrocyte phenotypes...

    Authors: Fatemeh Khodadadei, Rooshan Arshad, Diego M. Morales, Jacob Gluski, Neena I. Marupudi, James P. McAllister II, David D. Limbrick Jr. and Carolyn A. Harris
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:78
  17. The hormone leptin exerts its function in the brain to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure to prevent obesity. However, most obese subjects reflect the resistance to leptin even with elevated se...

    Authors: Yajuan Shi, Hyosung Kim, Catherine A. Hamann, Elizabeth M. Rhea, Jonathan M. Brunger and Ethan S. Lippmann
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:77
  18. Mucopolysaccharidoses comprise a set of genetic diseases marked by an enzymatic dysfunction in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans in lysosomes. There are eight clinically distinct types of mucopolysaccharid...

    Authors: Onur Sahin, Hannah P. Thompson, Grant W. Goodman, Jun Li and Akihiko Urayama
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:76
  19. The short and long-term health effects of JUUL electronic cigarette (e-Cig) are largely unknown and warrant extensive research. We hypothesized that JUUL exposure could cause cerebrovascular toxicities impacti...

    Authors: Ali Ehsan Sifat, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Saeideh Nozohouri, Heidi Villalba, Yong Zhang, Sejal Sharma, Yashwardhan Ghanwatkar, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, David Mara, Luca Cucullo and Thomas J. Abbruscato
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:74
  20. Systemic drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Low intensity focused ultrasound (LiFUS) is a non-invasive technique to disrupt the BBB, though the...

    Authors: Tasneem A. Arsiwala, Samuel A. Sprowls, Kathryn E. Blethen, Ross A. Fladeland, Cullen P. Wolford, Brooke N. Kielkowski, Morgan J. Glass, Peng Wang, Olivia Wilson, Jeffrey S. Carpenter, Manish Ranjan, Victor Finomore, Ali Rezai and Paul R. Lockman
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:72
  21. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a clinico-radiological syndrome of elderly individuals likely sustained by different neurodegenerative changes as copathologies. Since iNPH is a potentially r...

    Authors: Giulia Giannini, Simone Baiardi, Sofia Dellavalle, Corrado Zenesini, Sabina Cevoli, Nils Danner, Henna-Kaisa Jyrkkänen, Marcello Rossi, Barbara Polischi, Corinne Quadalti, Camilla Stefanini, Pietro Cortelli, David Milletti, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Giorgio Palandri, Ville Leinonen…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:71
  22. Neurovascular coupling is a precise mechanism that induces increased blood flow to activated brain regions, thereby providing oxygen and glucose. In this study, we hypothesized that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)...

    Authors: Kyu-Sung Kim, Min Tae Jeon, Eun Seon Kim, Chan Hee Lee and Do-Geun Kim
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:70
  23. A range of neurological pathologies may lead to secondary hydrocephalus. Treatment has largely been limited to surgical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, as specific and efficient pharmacological options ar...

    Authors: Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Dagne Barbuskaite, Eva Kjer Heerfordt, Sara Diana Lolansen, Søren Norge Andreassen, Nina Rostgaard, Markus Harboe Olsen, Nicolas H. Norager, Tenna Capion, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Marianne Juhler and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:69
  24. The aims of the study were to measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes in the lateral ventricle, high-convexity subarachnoid space, and Sylvian fissure region in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure h...

    Authors: Jaehwan Han, Myoung Nam Kim, Ho-Won Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Uicheul Yoon and Kyunghun Kang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:66
  25. In myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), several areas of demyelination are detectable in mouse cerebral cortex, where neuroinflammation events are ...

    Authors: Mariella Errede, Tiziana Annese, Valentina Petrosino, Giovanna Longo, Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Antonio d’Amati, Antonio Uccelli, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo and Daniela Virgintino
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:68
  26. The pressure difference between the eye and brain in upright postures may be affected by compartmentalization of the optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSAS). Both pressure and deformation will depend on the mic...

    Authors: Petter Holmlund, Karen-Helene Støverud and Anders Eklund
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:67
  27. Disturbances in the brain fluid balance can lead to life-threatening elevation in the intracranial pressure (ICP), which represents a vast clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the details underlying the molecular...

    Authors: Eva K. Oernbo, Annette B. Steffensen, Pooya Razzaghi Khamesi, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Dagne Barbuskaite, Frederik Vilhardt, Niklas J. Gerkau, Katerina Tritsaris, Anja H. Simonsen, Sara D. Lolansen, Søren N. Andreassen, Steen G. Hasselbalch, Thomas Zeuthen, Christine R. Rose, Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:65
  28. Endothelial cells (ECs) in cerebral vessels are considered the primary targets in acute hemorrhagic brain injuries. EC dysfunction can aggravate neuronal injuries by causing secondary inflammatory responses an...

    Authors: Min Joung Lee, Jiebo Zhu, Jong Hun An, Seong Eun Lee, Tae Yeon Kim, Eungseok Oh, Yea Eun Kang, Woosuk Chung and Jun Young Heo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:64
  29. COVID-19, which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in devastating morbidity and mortality worldwide due to lethal pneumonia and respiratory distress. In ad...

    Authors: Daniel Adesse, Luis Gladulich, Liandra Alvarez-Rosa, Michele Siqueira, Anne Caroline Marcos, Marialice Heider, Caroline Soares Motta, Silvia Torices, Michal Toborek and Joice Stipursky
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:63
  30. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) often develops following hemorrhagic events such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Treatment is limited to surgical diversion of the ce...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Nina Rostgaard, Dagne Barbuskaite, Tenna Capion, Markus Harboe Olsen, Nicolas H. Norager, Frederik Vilhardt, Søren Norge Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Fenghui Ye, Marianne Juhler, Richard F. Keep and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:62
  31. Infectious and immunological theories of schizophrenia have been discussed for over a century. Contradictory results for infectious agents in association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) were repor...

    Authors: Kimon Runge, Agnes Balla, Bernd L. Fiebich, Simon J. Maier, Benjamin Pankratz, Andrea Schlump, Kathrin Nickel, Rick Dersch, Katharina Domschke, Ludger Tebartz van Elst and Dominique Endres
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:61
  32. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles naturally released from cells that are delimited by a lipid bilayer and are unable to replicate. How the EVs cross the Blood–Brain barrier (BBB) in a bidirectional ma...

    Authors: Héctor M. Ramos-Zaldívar, Iva Polakovicova, Edison Salas-Huenuleo, Alejandro H. Corvalán, Marcelo J. Kogan, Claudia P. Yefi and Marcelo E. Andia
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:60
  33. Levels of the biomarkers amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ42), tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The mechanism...

    Authors: Simon Lidén, Dan Farahmand and Katarina Laurell
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:59
  34. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Tumor location plays a role in patient prognosis, with tumors proximal to the lateral ventricles (LVs) presenting wit...

    Authors: Emily S. Norton, Lauren A. Whaley, María José Ulloa-Navas, Patricia García-Tárraga, Kayleah M. Meneses, Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Natanael Zarco, Anna Carrano, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, José Manuel García-Verdugo and Hugo Guerrero-Cázares
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:58
  35. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes secondary pathological damage, such as damage to the blood–brain barrier (BBB), ischaemia and inflammation. Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing 2a (Mfsd2a) has...

    Authors: Yuan Zhang, Lin Wang, Qiuling Pan, Xiaomin Yang, Yunchuan Cao, Jin Yan, Yingwen Wang, Yihao Tao, Runjin Fan, Xiaochuan Sun and Lin Li
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:57
  36. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) occurs in 80% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is mainly caused by the abnormal deposition of Aβ in the walls of cerebral blood vessels. Cerebrovascular molecular...

    Authors: Takumi Handa, Hayate Sasaki, Masaki Takao, Mitsutoshi Tano and Yasuo Uchida
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:56
  37. Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance has previously not been established for neurological diseases. Possibly, variability in cerebrospinal fluid clearance may affect the underlyi...

    Authors: Markus Herberg Hovd, Espen Mariussen, Hilde Uggerud, Aslan Lashkarivand, Hege Christensen, Geir Ringstad and Per Kristian Eide
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:55
  38. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene, which leads to neuronal loss and decline in cognitive a...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Renée F. Nerenberg, Gabrielle Grifno, Diego Arevalo, Zhaobin Guo and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:54
  39. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in many neurological pathologies, e.g. hydrocephalus and stroke. This condition is routinely relieved with neurosurgical approaches, since effective and targete...

    Authors: Dagne Barbuskaite, Eva K. Oernbo, Jonathan H. Wardman, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Eller Conti, Søren N. Andreassen, Niklas J. Gerkau, Christine R. Rose and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:53
  40. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is currently unknown. With no visible obstructions, altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may explain the accumulation of ventricular fluid....

    Authors: Eva Kjer Oernbo, Annette Buur Steffensen, Hanne Gredal, Helle Harding Poulsen, Nina Rostgaard, Cecilie Holm Rasmussen, Marlene Møller-Nissen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Marianne Juhler and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:52
  41. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological condition with gait apraxia signs from its early manifestation. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is a surgical procedure available for treatmen...

    Authors: Alberto Ferrari, David Milletti, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Giulia Giannini, Sabina Cevoli, Elena Magelli, Luca Albini-Riccioli, Paolo Mantovani, Pietro Cortelli, Lorenzo Chiari and Giorgio Palandri
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:51
  42. The brain requires iron for a number of processes, including energy production. Inadequate or excessive amounts of iron can be detrimental and lead to a number of neurological disorders. As such, regulation of...

    Authors: Stephanie L. Baringer, Elizabeth B. Neely, Kondaiah Palsa, Ian A. Simpson and James R. Connor
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:49
  43. This editorial highlights advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2021. It covers research on components of the blood–brain barrier, neurovascular unit and brain fluid systems; how brain barriers...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:48
  44. Severe neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood induces dramatic neurological impairment. Central oxidative stress and an inflammatory response have been associat...

    Authors: Sandrine Blondel, Nathalie Strazielle, Amel Amara, Rainui Guy, Christine Bain, Alix Rose, Laurent Guibaud, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin and Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:47
  45. Knowledge of the entry receptors responsible for SARS-CoV-2 is key to understand the neural transmission and pathogenesis of COVID-19 characterized by a neuroinflammatory scenario. Understanding the brain dist...

    Authors: Yong Zhang, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Yashwardhan Ghanwatkar, Sejal Sharma, Saeideh Nozohouri, Elizabeth Burks, Alexander Mdzinarishvili, Zijuan Liu and Thomas J. Abbruscato
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:46

    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:91