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  1. Ways to prevent disease-induced vascular modifications that accelerate brain damage remain largely elusive. Improved understanding of perivascular cell signalling could provide unparalleled insight as these ce...

    Authors: Julia Baumann, Chih-Chieh Tsao, Shalmali Patkar, Sheng-Fu Huang, Simona Francia, Synnøve Norvoll Magnussen, Max Gassmann, Johannes Vogel, Christina Köster-Hegmann and Omolara O. Ogunshola

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:6

    Content type: Research

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  2. Altered cerebrovascular function and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can contribute to chronic neuropathology and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TBI due to a ...

    Authors: Alexander T. Clark, Eric E. Abrahamson, Matthew M. Harper and Milos D. Ikonomovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:5

    Content type: Research

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  3. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome measure timed up and go (TUG) in a large, nationwide cohort of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) pre- and post-operatively. Further...

    Authors: Nina Sundström, Johanna Rydja, Johan Virhammar, Lena Kollén, Fredrik Lundin and Mats Tullberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:4

    Content type: Research

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  4. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) is critically important to the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier prevents the safe transmission of beneficial drugs ...

    Authors: Yi Kung, Kuan-Yu Chen, Wei-Hao Liao, Yi-Hua Hsu, Chueh-Hung Wu, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Abel P.-H. Huang and Wen-Shiang Chen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:3

    Content type: Research

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  5. The treatment of hydrocephalus has been a topic of intense research ever since the first clinically successful use of a valved cerebrospinal fluid shunt 72 years ago. While ample studies elucidating different ...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Markus Florian Oertel, Sara Qvarlander, Margarete Arras, Anders Eklund, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:2

    Content type: Research

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  6. Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) experience hypoxic conditions during early brain development. The newly formed capillaries are tight and functional before astrocytes and pericytes join the capillarie...

    Authors: Burak Ozgür, Hans Christian Cederberg Helms, Erica Tornabene and Birger Brodin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:1

    Content type: Research

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  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) have a complex pathophysiology involving inflammatory response, ventricular zone and cell–cell junction disruption, and choroid-plexus...

    Authors: Ayodamola Otun, Diego M. Morales, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Seth Goldberg, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Yan Yan, Albert M. Isaacs, Jennifer M. Strahle, James P. McAllister II and David D. Limbrick Jr

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  8. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation between the brain and spinal canal, as part of the glymphatic system, provides homeostatic support to brain functions and waste clearance. Recently, it has been observed t...

    Authors: Marco Muccio, David Chu, Lawrence Minkoff, Neeraj Kulkarni, Brianna Damadian, Raymond V. Damadian and Yulin Ge

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:61

    Content type: Research

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  9. In ischemic stroke, the function of the cerebral vasculature is impaired. This vascular structure is formed by the so-called neurovascular unit (NVU). A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in NVU d...

    Authors: Nienke R. Wevers, Arya Lekshmi Nair, Tania M. Fowke, Maria Pontier, Dhanesh G. Kasi, Xandor M. Spijkers, Charlie Hallard, Gwenaëlle Rabussier, Remko van Vught, Paul Vulto, Helga E. de Vries and Henriëtte L. Lanz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:59

    Content type: Research

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  10. Little is known about the extent of drug entry into developing brain, when administered to pregnant and lactating women. Lithium is commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder. Here we studied transfer of lithium...

    Authors: Shene Yi-Shiuan Chiou, Kai Kysenius, Yifan Huang, Mark David Habgood, Liam M. Koehn, Fiona Qiu, Peter J. Crouch, Swati Varshney, Katherine Ganio, Katarzyna Magdalena Dziegielewska and Norman Ruthven Saunders

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:57

    Content type: Research

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  11. Understanding molecular transport in the brain is critical to care and prevention of neurological disease and injury. A key question is whether transport occurs primarily by diffusion, or also by convection or...

    Authors: Lori A. Ray, Martin Pike, Matthew Simon, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:55

    Content type: Research

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  12. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurological condition of unresolved etiology characterized by a clinical triad of symptoms; gait disturbances, urinary incontinence,...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Nina Rostgaard, Søren Norge Andreassen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Marianne Juhler, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch and Nanna MacAulay

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research

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  13. The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) can cause meningitis in humans, but the host signalling pathways manipulated by Nm during central nervous system (CNS) entry are not completely understood.

    Authors: Rosanna Herold, René Scholtysik, Selina Moroniak, Christel Weiss, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten and Christian Schwerk

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:53

    Content type: Research

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  14. Contemporary biomarker collection techniques in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have to date offered only modest clinical insights into neurologic diseases such as epilepsy and glioma. Conversely, the collection...

    Authors: Luke A. Stangler, Abbas Kouzani, Kevin E. Bennet, Ludovic Dumee, Michael Berk, Gregory A. Worrell, Steven Steele, Terence C. Burns and Charles L. Howe

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:52

    Content type: Review

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  15. Rehabilitation in iNPH is suggested to be an important factor to improve patients’ functions but there are lack of clinical trials evaluating the effect of rehabilitation interventions after shunt surgery in i...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Lena Kollén, Per Hellström, Katarina Owen, Åsa Lundgren Nilsson, Carsten Wikkelsø, Mats Tullberg and Fredrik Lundin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

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  16. Chronic mild hypoxia (CMH, 8% O2) stimulates robust vascular remodelling in the brain, but it also triggers transient vascular disruption. This raises the fundamental question: is the vascular leak an unwanted si...

    Authors: Sebok K. Halder and Richard Milner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:50

    Content type: Research

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  17. Many animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus; most of these have been rodent models whose lissencephalic cerebral cortex may not respond to ventriculomegaly in the same way a...

    Authors: James P. McAllister II, Michael R. Talcott, Albert M. Isaacs, Sarah H. Zwick, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Alexis L. Hartman, Ryan N. Dilger, Stephen A. Fleming, Rebecca K. Golden, Diego M. Morales, Carolyn A. Harris and David D. Limbrick Jr

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  18. Repetitive head trauma has been associated with the accumulation of tau species in the brain. Our prior work showed brain vascular mural cells contribute to tau processing in the brain, and that these cells pr...

    Authors: Maxwell Eisenbaum, Andrew Pearson, Arissa Gratkowski, Benoit Mouzon, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford, Joseph Ojo and Corbin Bachmeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  19. Disruption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange in the spinal cord is likely to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases that involve abnormal fluid accumulation, including...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that occupies the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces within and around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is a dynamic signaling milieu that transports nutrien...

    Authors: Vania Sepúlveda, Felipe Maurelia, Maryori González, Jaime Aguayo and Teresa Caprile

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:45

    Content type: Review

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  21. Destruction of blood–brain barrier (BBB) ​​is one of the main mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Frizzled-7 is a key protein expressed on the surface of endothelial ...

    Authors: Wei He, Qin Lu, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Xin Hu, John H. Zhang, Haibin Dai and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  22. The pathways that control protein transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) remain poorly characterized. Despite great advances in recapitulating the human BBB in vitro, current models are not suitable fo...

    Authors: Claire Simonneau, Martina Duschmalé, Alina Gavrilov, Nathalie Brandenberg, Sylke Hoehnel, Camilla Ceroni, Evodie Lassalle, Elena Kassianidou, Hendrik Knoetgen, Jens Niewoehner and Roberto Villaseñor

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:43

    Content type: Research

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  23. C-X-C chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is frequently elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a variety of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, has been detected in meningeal B cell aggregates in br...

    Authors: Christine Harrer, Ferdinand Otto, Georg Pilz, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Hitzl, Peter Wipfler and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:40

    Content type: Research

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  24. Thrombin has been implicated in playing a role in hydrocephalus development following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). However, the mechanisms underlying the sex differences to the detrimental effects of thr...

    Authors: Kang Peng, Sravanthi Koduri, Fan Xia, Feng Gao, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  25. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains unclear. Little is known about the pre-symptomatic stage. This study aimed to investigate the association of neuropsychological data with...

    Authors: Doortje C. Engel, Lukas Pirpamer, Edith Hofer, Reinhold Schmidt and Cornelia Brendle

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  26. In vitro models based on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are among the most versatile tools in blood–brain barrier research for testing drug penetration into the brain and how this is affected by eff...

    Authors: Birthe Gericke, Saskia Borsdorf, Inka Wienböker, Andreas Noack, Sandra Noack and Wolfgang Löscher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research

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  27. Vascular dementia (VaD) and atypical parkinsonism often present with symptoms that can resemble idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and enlarged cerebral ventricles, and can be challenging differen...

    Authors: David Fällmar, Oliver Andersson, Lena Kilander, Malin Löwenmark, Dag Nyholm and Johan Virhammar

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:35

    Content type: Research

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  28. Genetic variation in a population has an influence on the manifestation of monogenic as well as multifactorial disorders, with the underlying genetic contribution dependent on several interacting variants. Com...

    Authors: Johanna Schaffenrath, Sheng-Fu Huang, Tania Wyss, Mauro Delorenzi and Annika Keller

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  29. Implantation of ventricular catheters (VCs) to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard approach to treat hydrocephalus. VCs fail frequently due to tissue obstructing the lumen via the drainage holes. Mec...

    Authors: Prashant Hariharan, Jeffrey Sondheimer, Alexandra Petroj, Jacob Gluski, Andrew Jea, William E. Whitehead, Sandeep Sood, Steven D. Ham, Brandon G. Rocque, Neena I. Marupudi, James P. McAllister II, David Limbrick, Marc R. Del Bigio and Carolyn A. Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  30. SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus (CoV), is known to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a number of non-respiratory complications, particularly in older male patients with prior health conditions, such as ...

    Authors: Conor McQuaid, Molly Brady and Rashid Deane

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:32

    Content type: Review

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  31. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrated colorless brain fluid that circulates within brain spaces like the ventricular cavities, subarachnoid space, and the spine. Its continuous flow serves many prima...

    Authors: Vijay Kumar, Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Ravi Shankar Goutam, Soochul Park and Jaebong Kim

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:31

    Content type: Review

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  32. Periventricular extracellular oedema, myelin damage, inflammation, and glial reactions are common neuropathological events that occur in the brain in congenital hydrocephalus. The periventricular white matter ...

    Authors: Betsaida Ojeda-Pérez, José A. Campos-Sandoval, María García-Bonilla, Casimiro Cárdenas-García, Patricia Páez-González and Antonio J. Jiménez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  33. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are one of the hallmarks of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), but the pathological mechanisms underlying WMHs remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that extracellular ...

    Authors: Xinfeng Yu, Xinzhen Yin, Hui Hong, Shuyue Wang, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Fan Zhang, Ofer Pasternak, Ruiting Zhang, Linglin Yang, Min Lou, Minming Zhang and Peiyu Huang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  34. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-borne agents and potentially harmful xenobiotics. Our group’s previous data has shown that tobacco ...

    Authors: Hossam Kadry, Behnam Noorani, Ulrich Bickel, Thomas J. Abbruscato and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  35. The entry of blood-borne molecules into the brain is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Various physical, transport and immune properties tightly regulate molecule movement between the blood and the ...

    Authors: Steffen E. Storck, Magdalena Kurtyka and Claus U. Pietrzik

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:27

    Content type: Short paper

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  36. Transferrin receptor (TfR1) mediated enhanced brain delivery of antibodies have been studied extensively in preclinical settings. However, the brain pharmacokinetics, i.e. brain entry, distribution and elimina...

    Authors: Rebecca Faresjö, Gillian Bonvicini, Xiaotian T. Fang, Ximena Aguilar, Dag Sehlin and Stina Syvänen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  37. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis (LIAS) are two forms of chronic adult hydrocephalus of different aetiology. We analysed overnight intracranial pres...

    Authors: Lauren M. Green, Thomas Wallis, Martin U. Schuhmann and Matthias Jaeger

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

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  38. This editorial discusses advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2020. Topics include: the cerebral endothelium and the neurovascular unit; the choroid plexus; the meninges; cerebrospinal fluid a...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:24

    Content type: Editorial

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  39. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible CNS disease characterized by disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition might be involve...

    Authors: Karolina Minta, Anna Jeppsson, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Erik Portelius, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mats Tullberg and Ulf Andreasson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

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  40. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and cognitive decline. Symptoms are potentially reversible and treatment is based on cerebrospinal flu...

    Authors: Samanta Fabrício Blattes da Rocha, Pedro André Kowacs, Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza, Matheus Kahakura Franco Pedro, Ricardo Ramina and Hélio A. Ghizoni Teive

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  41. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is the leading cause of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). CCH is strongly associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter lesions (WMLs) in CSVD....

    Authors: Zhengyu Sun, Chenhao Gao, Dandan Gao, Ruihua Sun, Wei Li, Fengyu Wang, Yanliang Wang, Huixia Cao, Guoyu Zhou, Jiewen Zhang and Junkui Shang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:21

    Content type: Research

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  42. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered an age-dependent chronic communicating hydrocephalus associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malabsorption; however, the aetiology of ventricular...

    Authors: Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa and Kazuhiko Nozaki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:20

    Content type: Review

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  43. Although widely used in the evaluation of the diseased, normal intracranial pressure and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure remain sparsely documented. Intracranial pressure is different from lumbar cerebrosp...

    Authors: Nicolas Hernandez Norager, Markus Harboe Olsen, Sarah Hornshoej Pedersen, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marek Czosnyka and Marianne Juhler

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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