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  1. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), primarily generated by the choroid plexus (ChP), is the major carrier of the glymphatic system. The alternations of CSF production and the ChP can be associated with the Alzheime...

    Authors: Jiaxin Li, Yueqin Hu, Yunzhi Xu, Xue Feng, Craig H. Meyer, Weiying Dai and Li Zhao
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:56
  2. AQP4 is expressed in the endfeet membranes of subpial and perivascular astrocytes and in the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system. The sporadic appearance of obstructive congenital hydrocephalus (O...

    Authors: Francisco Mayo, Lourdes González-Vinceiro, Laura Hiraldo-González, Francisco D. Rodríguez-Gómez, Claudia Calle-Castillejo, Manuel Mayo, Vanina Netti, Reposo Ramírez-Lorca and Miriam Echevarría
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:53
  3. Claudin-5 is one of the most essential tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs10314 is located in the 3’-untranslated region of claudin-5 and has been shown to b...

    Authors: Yosuke Hashimoto, Chris Greene, Nicole Hanley, Natalie Hudson, David Henshall, Kieron J. Sweeney, Donncha F. O’Brien and Matthew Campbell
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:52
  4. Authors: Virginia Plá, Styliani Bitsika, Michael J. Giannetto, Antonio Ladron-de-Guevara, Daniel Gahn-Martinez, Yuki Mori, Maiken Nedergaard and Kjeld Møllgård
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:49

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:48

  5. Authors: Winfried Neuhuber
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:48

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:93

    The Letter to the Editor Response to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:49

  6. Bidirectional reciprocal motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified using four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI. To estimate various CS...

    Authors: Shigeki Yamada, Tomohiro Otani, Satoshi Ii, Hirotaka Ito, Chifumi Iseki, Motoki Tanikawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Shigeo Wada, Marie Oshima and Mitsuhito Mase
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:47
  7. Choroid plexus (ChP), the brain structure primarily responsible for cerebrospinal fluid production, contains a robust circadian clock, whose role remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to [1] identify...

    Authors: Martin Sládek, Pavel Houdek, Jihwan Myung, Kateryna Semenovykh, Tereza Dočkal and Alena Sumová
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:46
  8. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) peptide-shuttles (BBBpS) are able to translocate the BBB and reach the brain. Despite the importance of brain targeting in pharmacology, BBBpS are poorly characterized. Currently, the...

    Authors: Marco Cavaco, Patrícia Fraga, Javier Valle, Ruben D. M. Silva, Lurdes Gano, João D. G. Correia, David Andreu, Miguel A. R. B. Castanho and Vera Neves
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:45
  9. Optimizing the treatment of several neurosurgical and neurological disorders relies on knowledge of the intracranial pressure (ICP). However, exploration of normal ICP and intracranial pressure pulse wave ampl...

    Authors: Nicolas Hernandez Norager, Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Anders Vedel Holst, Sarah Hornshoej Pedersen and Marianne Juhler
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:44
  10. The European Choroid plexus Scientific Forum (ECSF), held in Heidelberg, Germany between the 7th and 9th of November 2023, involved 21 speakers from eight countries. ECSF focused on discussing cutting-edge fun...

    Authors: Laura Pellegrini, Violeta Silva-Vargas and Annarita Patrizi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:43
  11. Most subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients have no obvious hematoma lesions but exhibit blood–brain barrier dysfunction and vasogenic brain edema. However, there is a few days between blood‒brain barrier dysf...

    Authors: Mingxu Duan, Xufang Ru, Jiru Zhou, Yuanshu Li, Peiwen Guo, Wenbo Kang, Wenyan Li, Zhi Chen, Hua Feng and Yujie Chen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:42
  12. Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a medical treatment tool in hyperbaric chambers and is an integral part of professional and combat divers’ activity. In extreme cases, exposure to hyperbaric oxygen can devel...

    Authors: Yehuda M. Danino, Ricarina Rabinovitz, Inbar Kirshenboim, Eilam Palzur, Chaim G. Pick, Itamar Ish-Shalom, Yana Golovkin and Yehuda Arieli
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:41
  13. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by dopamine-responsive symptoms as well as aggregation of α-synuclein protofibrils. New diagnostic methods assess α-synuclein aggregation characteristics from cerebrospinal...

    Authors: Gabriela Pierobon Mays, Kilian Hett, Jarrod Eisma, Colin D. McKnight, Jason Elenberger, Alexander K. Song, Ciaran Considine, Wesley T. Richerson, Caleb Han, Adam Stark, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:40
  14. Triptans are anti-migraine drugs with a potential central site of action. However, it is not known to what extent triptans cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was therefore to determine ...

    Authors: Nana Svane, Alberte Bay Villekjær Pedersen, Anne Rodenberg, Burak Ozgür, Lasse Saaby, Christoffer Bundgaard, Mie Kristensen, Peer Tfelt-Hansen and Birger Brodin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:39
  15. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a central feature of cerebral malaria (CM), a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections. In CM, sequestration of Pf-infected red blood cells (Pf-iRBCs) t...

    Authors: Adnan Gopinadhan, Jason M. Hughes, Andrea L. Conroy, Chandy C. John, Scott G. Canfield and Dibyadyuti Datta
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:38
  16. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and associated hydrocephalus are significant complications of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite proximity to IVH, the immune cell response at the choroid plex...

    Authors: Yingfeng Wan, Xiongjie Fu, Tianjie Zhang, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:37
  17. Using in vivo neuroimaging techniques, growing evidence has demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP) volume is enlarged in patients with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and P...

    Authors: Tingjun Dai, Jianwei Lou, Deyuan Kong, Jinyu Li, Qingguo Ren, Yujing Chen, Sujuan Sun, Yan Yun, Xiaohan Sun, Yiru Yang, Kai Shao, Wei Li, Yuying Zhao, Xiangshui Meng, Chuanzhu Yan, Pengfei Lin…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:36
  18. Early breach of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and consequently extravasation of blood-borne substances into the brain parenchyma is a common hallmark of ischemic stroke. Although BBB breakdown is associated wi...

    Authors: Jil Protzmann, Felix Jung, Lars Jakobsson and Linda Fredriksson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:35
  19. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves as a highly intricate and dynamic interface connecting the brain and the bloodstream, playing a vital role in maintaining brain homeostasis. BBB dysfunction has been associ...

    Authors: Ana Aragón-González, Allan C Shaw, Jannigje R Kok, Florence S Roussel, Cleide dos Santos Souza, Sarah M Granger, Tatyana Vetter, Yolanda de Diego, Kathrin C Meyer, Selina N Beal, Pamela J Shaw and Laura Ferraiuolo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:34
  20. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is pivotal for the maintenance of brain homeostasis and it strictly regulates the cerebral transport of a wide range of endogenous compounds and drugs. While fasting is increasing...

    Authors: Stéphanie Chasseigneaux, Véronique Cochois-Guégan, Lucas Lecorgne, Murielle Lochus, Sophie Nicolic, Corinne Blugeon, Laurent Jourdren, David Gomez-Zepeda, Stefan Tenzer, Sylvia Sanquer, Valérie Nivet-Antoine, Marie-Claude Menet, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Xavier Declèves, Salvatore Cisternino and Bruno Saubaméa
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:33
  21. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is associated with various neurological symptoms, including nausea, dizziness, headache, encephali...

    Authors: Shigeru Yamada, Tadahiro Hashita, Shota Yanagida, Hiroyuki Sato, Yukuto Yasuhiko, Kaori Okabe, Takamasa Noda, Motohiro Nishida, Tamihide Matsunaga and Yasunari Kanda
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:32
  22. In the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, vasculature is known to have a permeable, fenestrated phenotype which allows for the free passage of molecules in contrast to the blood brain barrier observed in the ...

    Authors: William E. Bastedo, R. Wilder Scott, Martin Arostegui and T. Michael Underhill
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:31
  23. Reduced clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been suggested as a pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With extensive documentation in non-human mammals and contradictory human neuroimaging d...

    Authors: Neel H. Mehta, Xiuyuan Wang, Samantha A. Keil, Ke Xi, Liangdong Zhou, Kevin Lee, Wanbin Tan, Edward Spector, Amirhossein Goldan, James Kelly, Nicolas A. Karakatsanis, P. David Mozley, Sadek Nehmeh, J. Levi Chazen, Simon Morin, John Babich…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:30
  24. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop blood–brain barrier dysfunction to varying degrees. How aging impacts Aβ pathology, blood–brain barrier function, and cognitive decline in AD remains largely unkn...

    Authors: Geetika Nehra, Sasivimon Promsan, Ruedeemars Yubolphan, Wijitra Chumboatong, Pornpun Vivithanaporn, Bryan J. Maloney, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Bjoern Bauer and Anika M. S. Hartz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:29
  25. Waste from the brain has been shown to be cleared via the perivascular spaces through the so-called glymphatic system. According to this model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain in perivascular spa...

    Authors: Laura Bojarskaite, Sahar Nafari, Anne Katrine Ravnanger, Mina Martine Frey, Nadia Skauli, Knut Sindre Åbjørsbråten, Lena Catherine Roth, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam, Erlend A. Nagelhus, Ole Petter Ottersen, Inger Lise Bogen, Anna E. Thoren and Rune Enger
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:28
  26. A principal protective component of the mammalian blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the high expression of the multidrug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by ABCB1) and ABCG2 (encoded by ABCG2) on the ...

    Authors: Joanna R. Thomas, William J. E. Frye, Robert W. Robey, Andrew C. Warner, Donna Butcher, Jennifer L. Matta, Tamara C. Morgan, Elijah F. Edmondson, Paula B. Salazar, Suresh V. Ambudkar and Michael M. Gottesman
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:27
  27. Glymphatic transport is vital for the physiological homeostasis of the retina and optic nerve. Pathological alterations of ocular glymphatic fluid transport and enlarged perivascular spaces have been described...

    Authors: Christine Delle, Xiaowei Wang, Michael Giannetto, Evan Newbold, Weiguo Peng, Ryszard Stefan Gomolka, Antonio Ladrón-de-Guevara, Neža Cankar, Elise Schiøler Nielsen, Celia Kjaerby, Pia Weikop, Yuki Mori and Maiken Nedergaard
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:26
  28. Reports of freezing of gait (FoG) in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are few and results are variable. This study’s objective was to evaluate the frequency of FoG in a large cohort of iNPH pati...

    Authors: Carl-Johan Kihlstedt, Jan Malm, Alfonso Fasano and David Bäckström
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:22
  29. Understanding of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation is essential for physiological studies and clinical diagnosis. Real-time phase contrast sequences (RT-PC) can quantify beat-to-beat CSF flow signals. ...

    Authors: Pan Liu, Kimi Owashi, Heimiri Monnier, Serge Metanbou, Cyrille Capel and Olivier Balédent
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:25
  30. Hydrocephalus (HC) is a heterogenous disease characterized by alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics that may cause increased intracranial pressure. HC is a component of a wide array of genetic synd...

    Authors: Andrew T. Hale, Hunter Boudreau, Rishi Devulapalli, Phan Q. Duy, Travis J. Atchley, Michael C. Dewan, Mubeen Goolam, Graham Fieggen, Heather L. Spader, Anastasia A. Smith, Jeffrey P. Blount, James M. Johnston, Brandon G. Rocque, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Zechen Chong, Jennifer M. Strahle…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:24
  31. The active transport of molecules into the brain from blood is regulated by receptors, transporters, and other cell surface proteins that are present on the luminal surface of endothelial cells at the blood–br...

    Authors: Tammy-Lynn Tremblay, Wael Alata, Jacqueline Slinn, Ewa Baumann, Christie E. Delaney, Maria Moreno, Arsalan S. Haqqani, Danica B. Stanimirovic and Jennifer J. Hill
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:23
  32. The choroid plexus functions as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, plays an important role in CSF production and circulation, and has gained increased attention in light of the recent elucidation of ...

    Authors: Jarrod J. Eisma, Colin D. McKnight, Kilian Hett, Jason Elenberger, Caleb J. Han, Alexander K. Song, Ciaran Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:21
  33. Impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and the optic nerve (ON), including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseas...

    Authors: Diego Rossinelli, Gilles Fourestey, Hanspeter Esriel Killer, Albert Neutzner, Gianluca Iaccarino, Luca Remonda and Jatta Berberat
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:20
  34. Syringomyelia (SM) is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities, referred to as syrinxes, within the spinal cord tissue. The molecular etiology of SM post-spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well u...

    Authors: Dipak D. Pukale, Kayla Adkins-Travis, Siddhartha R. Aryal, Leah P. Shriver, Gary J. Patti and Nic D. Leipzig
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:19
  35. Laminin-α5, a major component of the basal lamina, is predominantly synthesized by endothelial and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) in the CNS. Loss of laminin-α5 in either population f...

    Authors: Abhijit Nirwane, Minkyung Kang, Aravinthan Adithan, Vrishni Maharaj, Felicia Nguyen, Elliot Santaella Aguilar, Ava Nasrollahi and Yao Yao
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:18
  36. Interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies can be challenging in preterm infants. We hypothesized that intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and infection (meningiti...

    Authors: Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Alexander T. Yahanda, Albert M. Isaacs, Brandon Baksh, S. Hassan A. Akbari, Haley Botteron, Diego M. Morales, Rowland H. Han, James P. McAllister II, Amit M. Mathur, Jennifer M. Strahle, Christopher D. Smyser and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:17
  37. Patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are predisposed to developing dementing disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt implantation is a treatment used to improve the motor and cognit...

    Authors: Pao-Hui Tseng, Wan-Ting Huang, Jen-Hung Wang, Bor-Ren Huang, Hsin-Yi Huang and Sheng-Tzung Tsai
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:16
  38. Peri-sinus structures such as arachnoid granulations (AG) and the parasagittal dural (PSD) space have gained much recent attention as sites of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) egress and neuroimmune surveillance. N...

    Authors: Kilian Hett, Colin D. McKnight, Melanie Leguizamon, Jennifer S. Lindsey, Jarrod J. Eisma, Jason Elenberger, Adam J. Stark, Alexander K. Song, Megan Aumann, Ciaran M. Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:15
  39. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome could offer important insights into central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. To advance proteomic research in pediatric CNS cancer, the current study aims to (1) evalua...

    Authors: Christian Mirian, Maria Thastrup, René Mathiasen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jesper Velgaard Olsen and Ole Østergaard
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:14
  40. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a major unmet medical need that currently has no preventive and/or curative treatment. This is, among others, driven by a poor understanding of the ...

    Authors: Yang Hu, Milda Girdenyté, Lieke Roest, Iida Liukkonen, Maria Siskou, Frida Bällgren, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes and Irena Loryan
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:13
  41. Inside the incompressible cranium, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid is directly linked to blood volume: a change in either will induce a compensatory change in the other. Vasodilatory lowering of blood pressu...

    Authors: Jari Jukkola, Mika Kaakinen, Abhishek Singh, Sadegh Moradi, Hany Ferdinando, Teemu Myllylä, Vesa Kiviniemi and Lauri Eklund
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:12
  42. Intro: Reliable estimates of drug uptake from blood to brain parenchyma are crucial in CNS drug discovery and development. While in vivo Kp,uu,brain estimates are the gold standard for investigating brain drug di...

    Authors: Kristine Langthaler, Christopher R. Jones, Lasse Saaby, Christoffer Bundgaard and Birger Brodin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:11
  43. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome exhibiting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), visual disturbances, and severe headache. IIH primarily affects young obese women, though it can occur ...

    Authors: Jonathan H. Wardman, Søren Norge Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Mette Nyholm Jensen, Jens E. Wilhjelm, Bjarne Styrishave, Steffen Hamann, Steffen Heegaard, Alexandra J. Sinclair and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:10
  44. The Hindbrain Choroid Plexus is a complex, cerebrospinal fluid-secreting tissue that projects into the 4th vertebrate brain ventricle. Despite its irreplaceability in the development and homeostasis of the ent...

    Authors: Viktória Parobková, Petra Kompaníková, Jakub Lázňovský, Michaela Kavková, Marek Hampl, Marcela Buchtová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser and Vítězslav Bryja
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:9
  45. Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is one of the key mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Astrocytes interact with endothelial and regulate BBB integrity via paracrin...

    Authors: Ying Hou, Ye Xie, Xiaoxuan Liu, Yushan Chen, Fangfang Zhou and Binbin Yang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:8