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  1. Content type: Research

    As an alternative to advection, solute transport by shear-augmented dispersion within oscillatory cerebrospinal fluid flow was investigated in small channels representing the basement membranes located between...

    Authors: M. Keith Sharp, Roxana O. Carare and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:13

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  2. Content type: Research

    Fluid dynamics of the craniospinal system are complex and still not completely understood. In vivo flow and pressure measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are limited. Whereas in silico modeling can be...

    Authors: Anne Benninghaus, Olivier Balédent, Armelle Lokossou, Carlos Castelar, Steffen Leonhardt and Klaus Radermacher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:11

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  3. Content type: Research

    Respiration-induced pressure changes represent a powerful driving force of CSF dynamics as previously demonstrated using flow-sensitive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present st...

    Authors: Gökmen Aktas, Jost M. Kollmeier, Arun A. Joseph, Klaus-Dietmar Merboldt, Hans-Christoph Ludwig, Jutta Gärtner, Jens Frahm and Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:10

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  4. Content type: Research

    The central nervous system was previously thought to draw oxygen and nutrition from the arteries and discharge carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes into the venous system. At present, the functional role ...

    Authors: Tetsuya Akaishi, Eiko Onishi, Michiaki Abe, Hiroaki Toyama, Kota Ishizawa, Michio Kumagai, Ryosuke Kubo, Ichiro Nakashima, Masashi Aoki, Masanori Yamauchi and Tadashi Ishii

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:8

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  5. Content type: Research

    Fluid homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for normal neurological function. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and interstitial fluid circulation in the CNS parenchyma...

    Authors: Joel A. Berliner, Thomas Woodcock, Elmira Najafi, Sarah J. Hemley, Magdalena Lam, Shaokoon Cheng, Lynne E. Bilston and Marcus A. Stoodley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:7

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  6. Content type: Review

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a subtype of hydrocephalus that occurs more often in the elderly population. It is usually characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinenc...

    Authors: Miles Hudson, Caden Nowak, Richard J. Garling and Carolyn Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:5

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  7. Content type: Review

    Tight junction proteins of the blood–brain barrier are vital for maintaining integrity of endothelial cells lining brain blood vessels. The presence of these protein complexes in the space between endothelial ...

    Authors: Chris Greene, Nicole Hanley and Matthew Campbell

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:3

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  8. Content type: Research

    This study investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics using cine phase-contrast MRI in the cerebral aqueduct and the prepontine cistern between three distinct groups: pre-shunt normal pressure hydroc...

    Authors: Robert B. Hamilton, Fabien Scalzo, Kevin Baldwin, Amber Dorn, Paul Vespa, Xiao Hu and Marvin Bergsneider

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:2

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  9. Content type: Research

    Type II diabetes is a vascular risk factor for cognitive impairment and increased risk of dementia. Disruption of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and blood–brain barrier (BBB) are hallmarks of subsequent retin...

    Authors: Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield and William A. Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:1

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  10. Content type: Research

    Type 1 Chiari malformation (CM-I) has been historically defined by cerebellar tonsillar position (TP) greater than 3–5 mm below the foramen magnum (FM). Often, the radiographic findings are highly variable, wh...

    Authors: Braden J. Lawrence, Aintzane Urbizu, Philip A. Allen, Francis Loth, R. Shane Tubbs, Alexander C. Bunck, Jan-Robert Kröger, Brandon G. Rocque, Casey Madura, Jason A. Chen, Mark G. Luciano, Richard G. Ellenbogen, John N. Oshinski, Bermans J. Iskandar and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:33

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  11. Content type: Research

    The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF product...

    Authors: Shawn Kant, Edward G. Stopa, Conrad E. Johanson, Andrew Baird and Gerald D. Silverberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:34

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  12. Content type: Review

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in regulating transport into and out of the brain. With increasing interest in the role of the BBB in health and disease, there have been significant advances in ...

    Authors: Jackson G. DeStefano, John J. Jamieson, Raleigh M. Linville and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:32

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  13. Content type: Research

    The distribution of cranio-spinal compliance (CSC) in the brain and spinal cord is a fundamental question, as it would determine the overall role of the compartments in modulating ICP in healthy and diseased s...

    Authors: Ritambhar Burman, Noam Alperin, Sang H. Lee and Brigit Ertl-Wagner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:29

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  14. Content type: Short paper

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a crucial method in the diagnostic process for suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), especially when cerebral imaging is negative or inconclusive. CSF cytology (detecti...

    Authors: R. Dersch, D. Benkler, T. Robinson, A. Baumgartner, S. Rauer and O. Stich

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:31

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  15. Content type: Review

    This review considers efflux of substances from brain parenchyma quantified as values of clearances (CL, stated in µL g−1 min−1). Total clearance of a substance is the sum of clearance values for all available ro...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:30

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  16. Content type: Research

    Nanotubular structures, denoted tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described in recent times as involved in cell-to-cell communication between distant cells. Nevertheless, TNT-like, long filopodial processes...

    Authors: Mariella Errede, Domenica Mangieri, Giovanna Longo, Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Antonella Vimercati, Gabriella Serio, Karl Frei, Roberto Perris and Daniela Virgintino

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:28

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  17. Content type: Research

    Cerebral edema can cause life-threatening increase in intracranial pressure. Besides surgical craniectomy performed in severe cases, osmotherapy may be employed to lower the intracranial pressure by osmotic ex...

    Authors: Eva Kjer Oernbo, Kasper Lykke, Annette Buur Steffensen, Kathrin Töllner, Christina Kruuse, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Wolfgang Löscher and Nanna MacAulay

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:27

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  18. Content type: Research

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and dementia. Both in humans and animal models of hypertension, neuropathological features such as brain atrophy and oedem...

    Authors: Daphne M. P. Naessens, Judith de Vos, Ed VanBavel and Erik N. T. P. Bakker

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:26

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  19. Content type: Review

    Breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) or inner blood–retinal barrier (BRB), induced by pathologically elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other mediators, can lead to vasogenic...

    Authors: Esmeralda K. Bosma, Cornelis J. F. van Noorden, Reinier O. Schlingemann and Ingeborg Klaassen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:24

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  20. Content type: Research

    Targeting endogenous blood–brain barrier (BBB) transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of neurological diseases. Advancement of Oatp...

    Authors: Hrvoje Brzica, Wazir Abdullahi, Bianca G. Reilly and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:25

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  21. Content type: Research

    Receptor-mediated transcytosis is one of the major routes for drug delivery of large molecules into the brain. The aim of this study was to develop a novel model of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) in a hig...

    Authors: Nienke R. Wevers, Dhanesh G. Kasi, Taylor Gray, Karlijn J. Wilschut, Benjamin Smith, Remko van Vught, Fumitaka Shimizu, Yasuteru Sano, Takashi Kanda, Graham Marsh, Sebastiaan J. Trietsch, Paul Vulto, Henriëtte L. Lanz and Birgit Obermeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:23

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  22. Content type: Research

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells express high levels of transthyretin, produce cerebrospinal fluid and many of its proteins, and make up the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Choroid plexus epithelial cells ar...

    Authors: Brett A. Johnson, Margaret Coutts, Hillary M. Vo, Xinya Hao, Nida Fatima, Maria J. Rivera, Robert J. Sims, Michael J. Neel, Young-Jin Kang and Edwin S. Monuki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:22

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  23. Content type: Research

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of abnormally high intracranial pressure with an unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to characterize craniospinal compliance and measure t...

    Authors: Monica D. Okon, Cynthia J. Roberts, Ashraf M. Mahmoud, Andrew N. Springer, Robert H. Small, John M. McGregor and Steven E. Katz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:21

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  24. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disturbances may occur during the course of disease in patients with glioblastoma. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting has generally been recommended to improve symptoms in glio...

    Authors: Bujung Hong, Manolis Polemikos, Hans E. Heissler, Christian Hartmann, Makoto Nakamura and Joachim K. Krauss

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:16

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  25. Content type: Research

    In Alzheimer’s disease, there are striking changes in CSF composition that relate to altered choroid plexus (CP) function. Studying CP tissue gene expression at the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier could prov...

    Authors: Edward G. Stopa, Keith Q. Tanis, Miles C. Miller, Elena V. Nikonova, Alexei A. Podtelezhnikov, Eva M. Finney, David J. Stone, Luiz M. Camargo, Lisan Parker, Ajay Verma, Andrew Baird, John E. Donahue, Tara Torabi, Brian P. Eliceiri, Gerald D. Silverberg and Conrad E. Johanson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:18

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  26. Content type: Short paper

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is highly neurotropic causing congenital abnormalities and neurological damage to the central nervous systems (CNS). In this study, we used a human induced pluripotent st...

    Authors: Judie B. Alimonti, Maria Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Caroline Sodja, Anna Jezierski, Danica B. Stanimirovic, Qing Liu, Arsalan S. Haqqani, Wayne Conlan and Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:15

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  27. Content type: Short paper

    Prior research on 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that behavioral deficits and white matter damage could be reduced by treatment with Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine. We hypothesized that treatment with nimodipi...

    Authors: Domenico L. Di Curzio, Xiaoyan Mao, Aidan Baker and Marc R. Del Bigio

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:14

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  28. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. A...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A. Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J. Hemley, Lynne E. Bilston and Marcus A. Stoodley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:13

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  29. Content type: Review

    The vertebrate blood–brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transp...

    Authors: Midrelle E. Noumbissi, Bianca Galasso and Monique F. Stins

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:12

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  30. Content type: Research

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brai...

    Authors: Catherine A. A. Lee, Hannah S. Seo, Anibal G. Armien, Frank S. Bates, Jakub Tolar and Samira M. Azarin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:9

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  31. Content type: Review

    The Hydrocephalus Association Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Workshop was held on July 25 and 26, 2016 at the National Institutes of Health. The workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers includin...

    Authors: Jenna E. Koschnitzky, Richard F. Keep, David D. Limbrick Jr., James P. McAllister II, Jill A. Morris, Jennifer Strahle and Yun C. Yung

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:11

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  32. Content type: Research Article

    Many studies have focused on the challenges of small molecule uptake across the blood–brain barrier, whereas few in-depth studies have assessed the challenges with the uptake of antibodies into the central ner...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Luisette Delva, Paul H. Weinreb, Robert B. Pepinsky, Danielle Graham, Elvana Veizaj, Anne E. Cheung, Weiping Chen, Ivan Nestorov, Ellen Rohde, Robin Caputo, Geoffrey M. Kuesters, Tonika Bohnert and Liang-Shang Gan

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:10

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  33. Content type: Short Paper

    It has been estimated that paediatric meningitis without elevated CSF white cell count (pleocytosis) accounts for 0.5–12% of all cases of bacterial meningitis. CSF protein and glucose measurements are therefor...

    Authors: Mona Noureldein, Roxana Mardare, Jack Pickard, Hoi Lun Shing and Michael Eisenhut

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:8

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  34. Content type: Research

    Transwell-based models of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) incorporating monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells show many of the key featur...

    Authors: Moriah E. Katt, Raleigh M. Linville, Lakyn N. Mayo, Zinnia S. Xu and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:7

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  35. Content type: Research

    Many radiological signs are known for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). However, there is little information about these signs in the pre-symptomatic phase. For pathophysiologic...

    Authors: D. C. Engel, S. D. Adib, M. U. Schuhmann and C. Brendle

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:5

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  36. Content type: Research

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) severely limits the entry of systemically administered drugs including chemotherapy to the brain. In rodents, regadenoson activation of adenosine A2A receptors causes transient BBB d...

    Authors: Sadhana Jackson, Jon Weingart, Edjah K. Nduom, Thura T. Harfi, Richard T. George, Dorothea McAreavey, Xiaobu Ye, Nicole M. Anders, Cody Peer, William D. Figg, Mark Gilbert, Michelle A. Rudek and Stuart A. Grossman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:2

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  37. Content type: Correction

    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that there are some errors in the formatting of names in the final version of the article.

    Authors: John Greenwood, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Hazel C. Jones, Alan W. Stitt, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Ignacio A. Romero, Matthew Campbell, Gert Fricker, Birger Brodin, Heiko Manninga, Pieter J. Gaillard, Markus Schwaninger, Carl Webster, Krzysztof B. Wicher and Michel Khrestchatisky

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:3

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:31

  38. Content type: Research

    para-Tyramine (p-TA) is a biogenic amine which is involved in multiple neuronal signal transductions. Since the concentration of p-TA in dog cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported to be ...

    Authors: Shin-ichi Akanuma, Yuhei Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki Kubo and Ken-ichi Hosoya

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:1

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  39. Content type: Research

    The spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) has a complex 3D fluid-filled geometry with multiple levels of anatomic complexity, the most salient features being the spinal cord and dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets. An...

    Authors: Lucas R. Sass, Mohammadreza Khani, Gabryel Connely Natividad, R. Shane Tubbs, Olivier Baledent and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:36

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  40. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) of prematurity, but no comprehensive analysis of signaling molecules has been performed using human cerebros...

    Authors: Gakwaya Habiyaremye, Diego M. Morales, Clinton D. Morgan, James P. McAllister, Travis S. CreveCoeur, Rowland H. Han, Mohamed Gabir, Brandon Baksh, Deanna Mercer and David D. Limbrick Jr.

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:35

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