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  1. White matter changes (WMC) on brain imaging can be classified as deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) or periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and are frequently seen in patients with idiopathic normal p...

    Authors: Carl Snöbohm, Filip Malmberg, Eva Freyhult, Kim Kultima, David Fällmar and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:35
  2. Oxidative stress is a shared pathology of neurodegenerative disease and brain injuries, and is derived from perturbations to normal cell processes by aging or environmental factors such as UV exposure and air ...

    Authors: Tracy D. Chung, Raleigh M. Linville, Zhaobin Guo, Robert Ye, Ria Jha, Gabrielle N. Grifno and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:33
  3. Blood biomarkers of neurological diseases are often employed to rule out or confirm the presence of significant intracranial or cerebrovascular pathology or for the differential diagnosis of conditions with si...

    Authors: Robert Murcko, Nicola Marchi, Damian Bailey and Damir Janigro
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:32
  4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a close representation of pathophysiological changes occurring in the central nervous system (CNS); therefore, it has been employed in pathogenesis research and biomarker dev...

    Authors: Tsuneo Nakajima, Shuko Takeda, Yuki Ito, Akane Oyama, Yoichi Takami, Yasushi Takeya, Koichi Yamamoto, Ken Sugimoto, Hideo Shimizu, Munehisa Shimamura, Hiromi Rakugi and Ryuichi Morishita
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:31
  5. The response of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following a stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), has been studied extensively. The main components of this reaction are endothelial cells, pericytes, a...

    Authors: Peter Solár, Alemeh Zamani, Klaudia Lakatosová and Marek Joukal
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:29
  6. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonatal and adult populations. IVH not only causes immediate damage to surrounding structures by way of mass effect ...

    Authors: Katherine G. Holste, Fan Xia, Fenghui Ye, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:28
  7. Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A) is a transmembrane protein expressed in a variety of tissues; little is known about its function, particularly in the brain. ITM2A was found to be highly enriched in human bra...

    Authors: Céline Cegarra, C. Chaves, C. Déon, T. M. Do, B. Dumas, A. Frenzel, P. Kuhn, V. Roudieres, J. C. Guillemot and D. Lesuisse
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:25
  8. Recent studies have suggested alternative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance pathways for brain parenchymal metabolic waste products. One fundamental but relatively under-explored component of these pathways ...

    Authors: Kilian Hett, Colin D. McKnight, Jarrod J. Eisma, Jason Elenberger, Jennifer S. Lindsey, Ciaran M. Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:24
  9. Adenylyl cyclases (ADCYs), by generating second messenger cAMP, play important roles in various cellular processes. Their expression, regulation and functions in the CNS, however, remain largely unknown. In th...

    Authors: Karan Devasani and Yao Yao
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:23
  10. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are an accelerating global health problem. Nevertheless, the stronghold of the brain- the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents drug penetrance and dwindles effective treatments. ...

    Authors: Sara Hernando, Polyxeni Nikolakopoulou, Dimitrios Voulgaris, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Manoli Igartua and Anna Herland
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:22
  11. In sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition is believed to be a consequence of impaired Aβ clearance, but this relationship is not well established in living humans. CSF clearance,...

    Authors: Yi Li, Henry Rusinek, Tracy Butler, Lidia Glodzik, Elizabeth Pirraglia, John Babich, P. David Mozley, Sadek Nehmeh, Silky Pahlajani, Xiuyuan Wang, Emily B. Tanzi, Liangdong Zhou, Sara Strauss, Roxana O. Carare, Neil Theise, Nobuyuki Okamura…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:21
  12. Hydrocephalus (increased ventricular size due to CSF accumulation) is a common finding in human ciliopathies and in mouse models with genetic depletion of the multiciliated cell (MCC) cilia machinery. However,...

    Authors: Yuechuan Xue, Zachary Gursky, Brittany Monte, Sunil Koundal, Xiaodan Liu, Hedok Lee, Tatyana V. Michurina, Kennelia A. Mellanson, Lucy Zhao, Alice Nemajerova, Kristopher T. Kahle, Ken-Ichi Takemaru, Grigori Enikolopov, Natalia I. Peunova and Helene Benveniste
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:20
  13. Scientific conferences are vital communication events for scientists in academia, industry, and government agencies. In the brain barriers research field, several international conferences exist that allow res...

    Authors: Brianna M. Holder, Shaina E. Tolan, Kaleb K. Heinrich, Kaitlin C. Miller, Natalie Hudson, Geetika Nehra, Michelle E. Pizzo, Steffen E. Storck, William F. Elmquist, Britta Engelhardt, Irena Loryan, Michal Toborek, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz and Brandon J. Kim
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:19
  14. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a highly organized multicellular system localized in the brain, formed by neuronal, glial (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) and vascular (endothelial cells and peric...

    Authors: Parand Zarekiani, Henrique Nogueira Pinto, Elly M. Hol, Marianna Bugiani and Helga E. de Vries
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:18
  15. Hydrocephalus is a neurological disease with an incidence of 80–125 per 100,000 births in the United States. Neuropathology comprises ventriculomegaly, periventricular white matter (PVWM) alterations, inflamma...

    Authors: Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Sarah Zwick, Michael Talcott, Ayodamola Otun, Albert M. Isaacs, Diego M. Morales, David D. Limbrick Jr. and James P. McAllister II
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:17
  16. In severe acute pancreatitis (AP) the CNS is affected manifesting in neurological symptoms. Earlier research from our laboratory showed blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability elevation in a taurocholate-induce...

    Authors: Fruzsina R. Walter, András Harazin, Andrea E. Tóth, Szilvia Veszelka, Ana R. Santa-Maria, Lilla Barna, András Kincses, György Biczó, Zsolt Balla, Balázs Kui, József Maléth, László Cervenak, Vilmos Tubak, Ágnes Kittel, Zoltán Rakonczay Jr and Mária A. Deli
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:16
  17. Lumbar punctures are a common examination in the work-up of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers should therefore be available for use in selec...

    Authors: Madelene Braun, Caroline Bjurnemark, Woosung Seo, Eva Freyhult, Dag Nyholm, Valter Niemelä, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, David Fällmar, Kim Kultima and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:15
  18. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation in the brain has garnered considerable attention in recent times. In contrast, there have been fewer studies focused on the spine, despite the expected importance of CSF c...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Neftali Flores Rodriguez, Courtney Wright, Simon McMullan, Robert Lloyd, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:14
  19. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, heterogenous disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Currently, active disease is determined by physician confirm...

    Authors: Michael Mazzucco, William Mannheim, Samantha V. Shetty and Jennifer R. Linden
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:13
  20. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a core component of neurosurgical diagnostics. With the introduction of telemetric monitoring devices in the last years, ICP monitoring has become feasible in a broade...

    Authors: Isabel Martinez-Tejada, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marianne Juhler, Morten Andresen and Jens E. Wilhjelm
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:12
  21. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and the clinical features of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has been inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate CSF biomarkers reflecting ...

    Authors: Heikki Lukkarinen, Anna Jeppsson, Carsten Wikkelsö, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Radu Constantinescu, Anne M. Remes, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomas Rauramaa, Katarina Nägga, Ville Leinonen and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:11
  22. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain endothelial-like cells (iBECs) are a robust, scalable, and translatable model of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB). Prior works have shown that high ...

    Authors: Lindsey M. Williams, Takashi Fujimoto, Riley R. Weaver, Aric F. Logsdon, Kira M. Evitts, Jessica E. Young, William A. Banks and Michelle A. Erickson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:10
  23. The glymphatic hypothesis proposes a mechanism for extravascular transport into and out of the brain of hydrophilic solutes unable to cross the blood–brain barrier. It suggests that there is a circulation of f...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:9
  24. Intrathecal drug delivery has a significant role in pain management and central nervous system (CNS) disease therapeutics. A fluid-physics based tool to assist clinicians in choosing specific drug doses to the...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Khani, Goutham Kumar Reddy Burla, Lucas R. Sass, Ostin N. Arters, Tao Xing, Haiming Wu and Bryn A. Martin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:8
  25. C–C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) and its endogenous ligand, CCL5, participate in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, much remains unknown regarding CCL5/CCR1 signaling in blood–brain b...

    Authors: Jun Yan, Weilin Xu, Cameron Lenahan, Lei Huang, Umut Ocak, Jing Wen, Gaigai Li, Wei He, Chensheng Le, John H. Zhang, Ligen Mo and Jiping Tang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:7
  26. Ways to prevent disease-induced vascular modifications that accelerate brain damage remain largely elusive. Improved understanding of perivascular cell signalling could provide unparalleled insight as these ce...

    Authors: Julia Baumann, Chih-Chieh Tsao, Shalmali Patkar, Sheng-Fu Huang, Simona Francia, Synnøve Norvoll Magnussen, Max Gassmann, Johannes Vogel, Christina Köster-Hegmann and Omolara O. Ogunshola
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:6
  27. Altered cerebrovascular function and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can contribute to chronic neuropathology and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TBI due to a ...

    Authors: Alexander T. Clark, Eric E. Abrahamson, Matthew M. Harper and Milos D. Ikonomovic
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:5
  28. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome measure timed up and go (TUG) in a large, nationwide cohort of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) pre- and post-operatively. Further...

    Authors: Nina Sundström, Johanna Rydja, Johan Virhammar, Lena Kollén, Fredrik Lundin and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:4
  29. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) is critically important to the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier prevents the safe transmission of beneficial drugs ...

    Authors: Yi Kung, Kuan-Yu Chen, Wei-Hao Liao, Yi-Hua Hsu, Chueh-Hung Wu, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Abel P.-H. Huang and Wen-Shiang Chen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:3
  30. The treatment of hydrocephalus has been a topic of intense research ever since the first clinically successful use of a valved cerebrospinal fluid shunt 72 years ago. While ample studies elucidating different ...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Markus Florian Oertel, Sara Qvarlander, Margarete Arras, Anders Eklund, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:2
  31. Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) experience hypoxic conditions during early brain development. The newly formed capillaries are tight and functional before astrocytes and pericytes join the capillarie...

    Authors: Burak Ozgür, Hans Christian Cederberg Helms, Erica Tornabene and Birger Brodin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:1
  32. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) have a complex pathophysiology involving inflammatory response, ventricular zone and cell–cell junction disruption, and choroid-plexus...

    Authors: Ayodamola Otun, Diego M. Morales, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Seth Goldberg, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Yan Yan, Albert M. Isaacs, Jennifer M. Strahle, James P. McAllister II and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:62
  33. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation between the brain and spinal canal, as part of the glymphatic system, provides homeostatic support to brain functions and waste clearance. Recently, it has been observed t...

    Authors: Marco Muccio, David Chu, Lawrence Minkoff, Neeraj Kulkarni, Brianna Damadian, Raymond V. Damadian and Yulin Ge
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:61
  34. In ischemic stroke, the function of the cerebral vasculature is impaired. This vascular structure is formed by the so-called neurovascular unit (NVU). A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in NVU d...

    Authors: Nienke R. Wevers, Arya Lekshmi Nair, Tania M. Fowke, Maria Pontier, Dhanesh G. Kasi, Xandor M. Spijkers, Charlie Hallard, Gwenaëlle Rabussier, Remko van Vught, Paul Vulto, Helga E. de Vries and Henriëtte L. Lanz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:59
  35. Little is known about the extent of drug entry into developing brain, when administered to pregnant and lactating women. Lithium is commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder. Here we studied transfer of lithium...

    Authors: Shene Yi-Shiuan Chiou, Kai Kysenius, Yifan Huang, Mark David Habgood, Liam M. Koehn, Fiona Qiu, Peter J. Crouch, Swati Varshney, Katherine Ganio, Katarzyna Magdalena Dziegielewska and Norman Ruthven Saunders
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:57
  36. Understanding molecular transport in the brain is critical to care and prevention of neurological disease and injury. A key question is whether transport occurs primarily by diffusion, or also by convection or...

    Authors: Lori A. Ray, Martin Pike, Matthew Simon, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:55
  37. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurological condition of unresolved etiology characterized by a clinical triad of symptoms; gait disturbances, urinary incontinence,...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Nina Rostgaard, Søren Norge Andreassen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Marianne Juhler, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:54
  38. The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) can cause meningitis in humans, but the host signalling pathways manipulated by Nm during central nervous system (CNS) entry are not completely understood.

    Authors: Rosanna Herold, René Scholtysik, Selina Moroniak, Christel Weiss, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten and Christian Schwerk
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:53
  39. Contemporary biomarker collection techniques in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have to date offered only modest clinical insights into neurologic diseases such as epilepsy and glioma. Conversely, the collection...

    Authors: Luke A. Stangler, Abbas Kouzani, Kevin E. Bennet, Ludovic Dumee, Michael Berk, Gregory A. Worrell, Steven Steele, Terence C. Burns and Charles L. Howe
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:52
  40. Rehabilitation in iNPH is suggested to be an important factor to improve patients’ functions but there are lack of clinical trials evaluating the effect of rehabilitation interventions after shunt surgery in i...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Lena Kollén, Per Hellström, Katarina Owen, Åsa Lundgren Nilsson, Carsten Wikkelsø, Mats Tullberg and Fredrik Lundin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:51
  41. Chronic mild hypoxia (CMH, 8% O2) stimulates robust vascular remodelling in the brain, but it also triggers transient vascular disruption. This raises the fundamental question: is the vascular leak an unwanted si...

    Authors: Sebok K. Halder and Richard Milner
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:50
  42. Many animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus; most of these have been rodent models whose lissencephalic cerebral cortex may not respond to ventriculomegaly in the same way a...

    Authors: James P. McAllister II, Michael R. Talcott, Albert M. Isaacs, Sarah H. Zwick, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Alexis L. Hartman, Ryan N. Dilger, Stephen A. Fleming, Rebecca K. Golden, Diego M. Morales, Carolyn A. Harris and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:49
  43. Disruption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange in the spinal cord is likely to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases that involve abnormal fluid accumulation, including...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:47