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  1. In 2012, we provided the first published evidence that human pluripotent stem cells could be differentiated to cells exhibiting markers and phenotypes characteristic of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In the en...

    Authors: Ethan S. Lippmann, Samira M. Azarin, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:64

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) plays an important role in long-term monitoring and neuro-intensive treatment of patients with a cerebral shunt. Currently, only two complete telemetric implants with...

    Authors: S. Rot, M. Dweek, P. Gutowski, L. Goelz, U. Meier and J. Lemcke

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:63

    Content type: Research

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  3. Understanding the pathophysiology of the blood brain–barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions. Applying a sensitive and specific LC–MS/MS technique for the measureme...

    Authors: Behnam Noorani, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Faleh Alqahtani, Yeseul Ahn, Dhavalkumar Patel, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Reza Mehvar and Ulrich Bickel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  4. The microvasculature (MV) of brains with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), in the absence of concurrent pathologies (e.g., infarctions, Lewy bodies), is i...

    Authors: Mamatha Damodarasamy, Robert B. Vernon, Jasmine L. Pathan, C. Dirk Keene, Anthony J. Day, William A. Banks and May J. Reed

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:60

    Content type: Research

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  5. Children referred to a tertiary hospital for the indication, “rule out idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)” may have an increased risk of raised venous sinus pressure. An increase in sinus pressure coul...

    Authors: Grant Alexander Bateman, Gopinath Musuwadi Subramanian, Swee Leong Yap and Alexander Robert Bateman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  6. The choroid plexus is a major contributor to the generation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the maintenance of its electrolyte and metabolite balance. Here, we sought to characterize the blood flow dynamics o...

    Authors: Li Zhao, Manuel Taso, Weiying Dai, Daniel Z. Press and David C. Alsop

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

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  7. The pathophysiological basis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is still unclear. Previous studies have shown a familial aggregation and a potential heritability when it comes to iNPH. Our aim ...

    Authors: Joel Räsänen, Joel Huovinen, Ville E. Korhonen, Antti Junkkari, Sami Kastinen, Simo Komulainen, Minna Oinas, Cecilia Avellan, Janek Frantzen, Jaakko Rinne, Antti Ronkainen, Mikko Kauppinen, Kimmo Lönnrot, Markus Perola, Anne M. Koivisto, Anne M. Remes…

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:57

    Content type: Research

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  8. David S. Miller was Acting Scientific Director of the Division of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and Head of the Intracellular Re...

    Authors: Björn Bauer, J. Larry Renfro, Karl J. Karnaky Jr., Rosalinde Masereeuw, Gert Fricker, Ron E. Cannon and Anika M. S. Hartz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short paper

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  9. Human coronaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious threat to human health. Examples include the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2003 (SARS-CoV-1), the Middle East Respiratory S...

    Authors: M. A. MacLean, L. Kamintsky, E. D. Leck and A. Friedman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:55

    Content type: Review

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  10. In recent years, differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into brain-specific microvascular endothelial cells (iBMECs) has frequently been used to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB). H...

    Authors: Pedram Motallebnejad and Samira M. Azarin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:54

    Content type: Research

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  11. Predictive in vitro models of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) are essential in early drug discovery and development. Among available immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines (BCECs), the h...

    Authors: Birthe Gericke, Kerstin Römermann, Andreas Noack, Sandra Noack, Jessica Kronenberg, Ingolf Ernst Blasig and Wolfgang Löscher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:53

    Content type: Research

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  12. The brain lacks a conventional lymphatic system to remove metabolic waste. It has been proposed that directional fluid movement through the arteriolar paravascular space (PVS) promotes metabolite clearance. We...

    Authors: Ravi Teja Kedarasetti, Kevin L. Turner, Christina Echagarruga, Bruce J. Gluckman, Patrick J. Drew and Francesco Costanzo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:52

    Content type: Research

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  13. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in its varied forms has become an indispensable tool for analyzing differential gene expression and thus characterization of specific tissues. Aiming to understand the brain barriers g...

    Authors: David M. F. Francisco, Luca Marchetti, Sabela Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Eduardo Frías-Anaya, Ricardo M. Figueiredo, Peter Winter, Ignacio Andres Romero, Helga E. de Vries, Britta Engelhardt and Rémy Bruggmann

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:51

    Content type: Review

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  14. Syringomyelia is a common spinal cord lesion. However, whether CSF blockage is linked to the formation and enlargement of syringomyelia is still controversial. The current model of syringomyelia needs modifica...

    Authors: Longbing Ma, Qingyu Yao, Can Zhang, Mo Li, Lei Cheng and Fengzeng Jian

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:50

    Content type: Research

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  15. The relationship between proteins in different CNS extracellular compartments is unknown. In this study the levels of selected proteins in three compartments in people with progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS)...

    Authors: Joakim Bergman, Anders Svenningsson, Per Liv, Tommy Bergenheim and Joachim Burman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:49

    Content type: Research

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  16. Formation, maintenance, and repair of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are critical for central nervous system homeostasis. The interaction of endothelial cells (ECs) with brain pericytes is known to induce BBB c...

    Authors: Marjolein Heymans, Ricardo Figueiredo, Lucie Dehouck, David Francisco, Yasuteru Sano, Fumitaka Shimizu, Takashi Kanda, Rémy Bruggmann, Britta Engelhardt, Peter Winter, Fabien Gosselet and Maxime Culot

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:48

    Content type: Research

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  17. Receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a principal pathway for transport of macromolecules essential for brain function across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Antibodies or peptide ligands which bind RMT recep...

    Authors: Wandong Zhang, Qing Yan Liu, Arsalan S. Haqqani, Sonia Leclerc, Ziying Liu, François Fauteux, Ewa Baumann, Christie E. Delaney, Dao Ly, Alexandra T. Star, Eric Brunette, Caroline Sodja, Melissa Hewitt, Jagdeep K. Sandhu and Danica B. Stanimirovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:47

    Content type: Research

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  18. Severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is one of the most devastating neurological complications in preterm infants, with the majority suffering long-term neurological morbidity and up to 50% developing post...

    Authors: Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, James P. McAllister II., Diego M. Morales, Steven L. Brody, Albert M. Isaacs and David D. Limbrick Jr.

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:46

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Pediatric hydrocephalus is a devastating and costly disease. The mainstay of treatment is still surgical shunting of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These shunts fail at a high rate and impose a significant burden ...

    Authors: Jacob Gluski, Paul Zajciw, Prashant Hariharan, Amanda Morgan, Diego M. Morales, Andrew Jea, William Whitehead, Neena Marupudi, Steven Ham, Sandeep Sood, James P. McAllister II, David D. Limbrick Jr. and Carolyn A. Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:45

    Content type: Research

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  20. The complexity of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU) was and still is a challenge to bridge. A highly selective, restrictive and dynamic barrier, formed at the interface of blood and br...

    Authors: Anuska V. Andjelkovic, Svetlana M. Stamatovic, Chelsea M. Phillips, Gabriela Martinez-Revollar and Richard F. Keep

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:44

    Content type: Review

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  21. 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of CSF can make an important contribution to the understanding of hydrodynamic changes in various neurological diseases but remains limited in clinical application due ...

    Authors: Elena Jaeger, Kristina Sonnabend, Frank Schaarschmidt, David Maintz, Kilian Weiss and Alexander C. Bunck

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  22. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the spectrum of cognitive impairments present in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The number of patients affected with HAND...

    Authors: Amila Omeragic, Olanre Kayode, Md Tozammel Hoque and Reina Bendayan

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:42

    Content type: Review

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  23. Proper neuronal function is directly dependent on the composition, turnover, and amount of interstitial fluid that bathes the cells. Most of the interstitial fluid is likely to be derived from ion and water tr...

    Authors: Daphne M. P. Naessens, Bram F. Coolen, Judith de Vos, Ed VanBavel, Gustav J. Strijkers and Erik N. T. P. Bakker

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:41

    Content type: Research

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  24. Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is crucial in the management of many neurological conditions. However, due to the invasiveness, high cost, and required expertise of available ICP monitoring techniqu...

    Authors: Nicolas Canac, Kian Jalaleddini, Samuel G. Thorpe, Corey M. Thibeault and Robert B. Hamilton

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:40

    Content type: Review

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  25. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in association with a range of brain disorders. There is limited insight into the regulatory mechanisms of ICP under physiological conditions, and consequently ...

    Authors: Sajedeh Eftekhari, Connar Stanley James Westgate, Katrine Printz Johansen, Signe Rath Bruun and Rigmor H. Jensen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:39

    Content type: Research

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  26. The United States faces a national crisis involving opioid medications, where currently more than 130 people die every day. To combat this epidemic, a better understanding is needed of how opioids penetrate in...

    Authors: Jacquelyn A. Brown, Shannon L. Faley, Yajuan Shi, Kathleen M. Hillgren, Geri A. Sawada, Thomas K. Baker, John P. Wikswo and Ethan S. Lippmann

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:38

    Content type: Research

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  27. Pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) represents one of the most devastating and lethal brain tumors in children with a median survival of 12 months. The high mortality rate can be explained by the...

    Authors: Clémence Deligne, Johan Hachani, Sophie Duban-Deweer, Samuel Meignan, Pierre Leblond, Angel M. Carcaboso, Yasuteru Sano, Fumitaka Shimizu, Takashi Kanda, Fabien Gosselet, Marie-Pierre Dehouck and Caroline Mysiorek

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:37

    Content type: Research

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  28. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role as a biological barrier by regulating molecular transport between circulating blood and the brain parenchyma. In drug development, the accurate evaluation ...

    Authors: Misaki Yamashita, Hiromasa Aoki, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao and Tamihide Matsunaga

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  29. The choroid plexus (CP) forming the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (B-CSF) barrier is among the least studied structures of the central nervous system (CNS) despite its clinical importance. The CP is an epithelio-e...

    Authors: Peter Solár, Alemeh Zamani, Lucie Kubíčková, Petr Dubový and Marek Joukal

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:35

    Content type: Review

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  30. Sixty years have passed since neurosurgeon Nils Lundberg presented his thesis about intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, which represents a milestone for its clinical introduction. Monitoring of ICP has sin...

    Authors: Karen Brastad Evensen and Per Kristian Eide

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:34

    Content type: Review

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  31. Symptomatic or active hydrocephalus in children is linked to an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), which is likely to be multifactorial in origin. The CSF outflow resistance, venous sinus resistance and...

    Authors: Grant Alexander Bateman, Swee Leong Yap, Gopinath Musuwadi Subramanian and Alexander Robert Bateman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:33

    Content type: Research

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  32. The most threatening metastases in breast cancer are brain metastases, which correlate with a very poor overall survival, but also a limited quality of life. A key event for the metastatic progression of breas...

    Authors: Carolin J. Curtaz, Constanze Schmitt, Saskia-Laureen Herbert, Jonas Feldheim, Nicolas Schlegel, Fabien Gosselet, Carsten Hagemann, Norbert Roewer, Patrick Meybohm, Achim Wöckel and Malgorzata Burek

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:31

    Content type: Research

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  33. Infusion testing is a common procedure to determine whether shunting will be beneficial in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The method has a well-developed theoretical foundation and corresponding ...

    Authors: Vegard Vinje, Anders Eklund, Kent-Andre Mardal, Marie E. Rognes and Karen-Helene Støverud

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:29

    Content type: Research

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  34. Iron is crucial for proper functioning of all organs including the brain. Deficiencies and excess of iron are common and contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. Whereas iron’s involvement in erythro...

    Authors: James R. Connor, Kari Duck, Stephanie Patton, Ian A. Simpson, Lynn Marie Trotti, Richard Allen, Christopher J. Earley and David Rye

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:28

    Content type: Short paper

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  35. Several secreted factors have been identified as drivers of cerebral vasculature development and inducers of blood–brain barrier (BBB) differentiation. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is central ...

    Authors: Ofri Bar, Sivan Gelb, Kian Atamny, Shira Anzi and Ayal Ben-Zvi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:27

    Content type: Research

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  36. Neuroimmune communication contributes to both baseline and adaptive physiological functions, as well as disease states. The vascular blood–brain barrier (BBB) and associated cells of the neurovascular unit (NV...

    Authors: Michelle A. Erickson, Miranda L. Wilson and William A. Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:26

    Content type: Review

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  37. In vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) models using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial-like cells (iBMELCs) have been developed to predict the BBB permeability of dru...

    Authors: Hiromasa Aoki, Misaki Yamashita, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao and Tamihide Matsunaga

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:25

    Content type: Research

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  38. Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is potentially under-diagnosed and under-treated, generating the need for a more efficient diagnostic tool. We aim to report CSF dynamics of patients with post-traumatic vent...

    Authors: Afroditi D. Lalou, Virginia Levrini, Marek Czosnyka, Laurent Gergelé, Matthew Garnett, Angelos Kolias, Peter J. Hutchinson and Zofia Czosnyka

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  39. Blood removal from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in post-subarachnoid hemorrhage patients may reduce the risk of related secondary brain injury. We formulated a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investig...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Khani, Lucas R. Sass, M. Keith Sharp, Aaron R. McCabe, Laura M. Zitella Verbick, Shivanand P. Lad and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:23

    Content type: Research

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  40. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental component of the central nervous system. Its functional and structural integrity is vital in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain microenvironment. On the oth...

    Authors: Aditya Bhalerao, Farzane Sivandzade, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Behnam Noorani and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:22

    Content type: Review

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  41. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) maintains homeostasis of the brain environment by tightly regulating the entry of substances from systemic circulation. A breach in the BBB results in increased permeability to po...

    Authors: Kyeong-A Kim, Donghyun Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Young-Jun Shin, Eun-Sun Kim, Muhammad Akram, Eun-Hye Kim, Arshad Majid, Seung-Hoon Baek and Ok-Nam Bae

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  42. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is altered in several diseases of the central nervous system. For example, the breakdown of the BBB during cerebral ischemia in stroke or traumatic brain injury is a hallmark of t...

    Authors: Anna Gerhartl, Nadja Pracser, Alexandra Vladetic, Sabrina Hendrikx, Heinz-Peter Friedl and Winfried Neuhaus

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  43. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) with adjustable gravitational valves, a certain proportion of patients develop secondary clinical worsening after in...

    Authors: Pawel Gutowski, Sergej Rot, Michael Fritsch, Ullrich Meier, Leonie Gölz and Johannes Lemcke

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  44. Syringomyelia is a serious complication of spinal cord trauma, occurring in approximately 28% of spinal cord injuries. Treatment options are limited and often produce unsatisfactory results. Post-traumatic syr...

    Authors: Joel Berliner, Sarah Hemley, Elmira Najafi, Lynne Bilston, Marcus Stoodley and Magdalena Lam

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:11

    Content type: Research

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  45. Hydrocephalus is a common and major complication that affects outcome after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). While aging impacts the occurrence of hydrocephalus in patients with IVH this and the underlying m...

    Authors: Yingfeng Wan, Feng Gao, Fenghui Ye, Weiming Yang, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:8

    Content type: Research

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  46. Elevation of the chemokine CXCL13 in CSF frequently occurs during active and acute CNS inflammatory processes and presumably is associated with B cell-related immune activation. Elevation levels, however, vary...

    Authors: Georg Pilz, Irma Sakic, Peter Wipfler, Jörg Kraus, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Wolfgang Hitzl, Eugen Trinka and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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