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  1. Implantation of ventricular catheters (VCs) to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard approach to treat hydrocephalus. VCs fail frequently due to tissue obstructing the lumen via the drainage holes. Mec...

    Authors: Prashant Hariharan, Jeffrey Sondheimer, Alexandra Petroj, Jacob Gluski, Andrew Jea, William E. Whitehead, Sandeep Sood, Steven D. Ham, Brandon G. Rocque, Neena I. Marupudi, James P. McAllister II, David Limbrick, Marc R. Del Bigio and Carolyn A. Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  2. SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus (CoV), is known to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a number of non-respiratory complications, particularly in older male patients with prior health conditions, such as ...

    Authors: Conor McQuaid, Molly Brady and Rashid Deane

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:32

    Content type: Review

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  3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrated colorless brain fluid that circulates within brain spaces like the ventricular cavities, subarachnoid space, and the spine. Its continuous flow serves many prima...

    Authors: Vijay Kumar, Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Ravi Shankar Goutam, Soochul Park and Jaebong Kim

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:31

    Content type: Review

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  4. Periventricular extracellular oedema, myelin damage, inflammation, and glial reactions are common neuropathological events that occur in the brain in congenital hydrocephalus. The periventricular white matter ...

    Authors: Betsaida Ojeda-Pérez, José A. Campos-Sandoval, María García-Bonilla, Casimiro Cárdenas-García, Patricia Páez-González and Antonio J. Jiménez

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  5. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are one of the hallmarks of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), but the pathological mechanisms underlying WMHs remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that extracellular ...

    Authors: Xinfeng Yu, Xinzhen Yin, Hui Hong, Shuyue Wang, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Fan Zhang, Ofer Pasternak, Ruiting Zhang, Linglin Yang, Min Lou, Minming Zhang and Peiyu Huang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  6. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-borne agents and potentially harmful xenobiotics. Our group’s previous data has shown that tobacco ...

    Authors: Hossam Kadry, Behnam Noorani, Ulrich Bickel, Thomas J. Abbruscato and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  7. The entry of blood-borne molecules into the brain is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Various physical, transport and immune properties tightly regulate molecule movement between the blood and the ...

    Authors: Steffen E. Storck, Magdalena Kurtyka and Claus U. Pietrzik

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:27

    Content type: Short paper

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  8. Transferrin receptor (TfR1) mediated enhanced brain delivery of antibodies have been studied extensively in preclinical settings. However, the brain pharmacokinetics, i.e. brain entry, distribution and elimina...

    Authors: Rebecca Faresjö, Gillian Bonvicini, Xiaotian T. Fang, Ximena Aguilar, Dag Sehlin and Stina Syvänen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  9. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis (LIAS) are two forms of chronic adult hydrocephalus of different aetiology. We analysed overnight intracranial pres...

    Authors: Lauren M. Green, Thomas Wallis, Martin U. Schuhmann and Matthias Jaeger

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

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  10. This editorial discusses advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2020. Topics include: the cerebral endothelium and the neurovascular unit; the choroid plexus; the meninges; cerebrospinal fluid a...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:24

    Content type: Editorial

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  11. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible CNS disease characterized by disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition might be involve...

    Authors: Karolina Minta, Anna Jeppsson, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Erik Portelius, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mats Tullberg and Ulf Andreasson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

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  12. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and cognitive decline. Symptoms are potentially reversible and treatment is based on cerebrospinal flu...

    Authors: Samanta Fabrício Blattes da Rocha, Pedro André Kowacs, Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza, Matheus Kahakura Franco Pedro, Ricardo Ramina and Hélio A. Ghizoni Teive

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  13. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is the leading cause of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). CCH is strongly associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter lesions (WMLs) in CSVD....

    Authors: Zhengyu Sun, Chenhao Gao, Dandan Gao, Ruihua Sun, Wei Li, Fengyu Wang, Yanliang Wang, Huixia Cao, Guoyu Zhou, Jiewen Zhang and Junkui Shang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:21

    Content type: Research

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  14. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered an age-dependent chronic communicating hydrocephalus associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malabsorption; however, the aetiology of ventricular...

    Authors: Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa and Kazuhiko Nozaki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:20

    Content type: Review

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  15. Although widely used in the evaluation of the diseased, normal intracranial pressure and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure remain sparsely documented. Intracranial pressure is different from lumbar cerebrosp...

    Authors: Nicolas Hernandez Norager, Markus Harboe Olsen, Sarah Hornshoej Pedersen, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marek Czosnyka and Marianne Juhler

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  16. The cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSF TT) is used for selecting shunt surgery candidates among patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the CS...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Andreas Eleftheriou and Fredrik Lundin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  17. The vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) have unique barrier properties. The endothelial cells (ECs) which comprise the CNS vessels contribute to the barrier via strong tight junctions, specific transpo...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Ihezie, Iny Elizebeth Mathew, Devin W. McBride, Ari Dienel, Spiros L. Blackburn and Peeyush Kumar Thankamani Pandit

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:17

    Content type: Review

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  18. Several central nervous system diseases are associated with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow patterns and have typically been characterized in vivo by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T...

    Authors: Per Kristian Eide, Lars Magnus Valnes, Erika Kristina Lindstrøm, Kent-Andre Mardal and Geir Ringstad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  19. The administration of microbial neuraminidase into the brain ventricular cavities of rodents represents a model of acute aseptic neuroinflammation. Ependymal cell death and hydrocephalus are unique features of...

    Authors: María del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Ana León-Rodríguez, María Dolores López-Ávalos and Jesús M. Grondona

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  20. Central nervous system diseases involving the parenchymal microvessels are frequently associated with a ‘microvasculopathy’, which includes different levels of neurovascular unit (NVU) dysfunction, including b...

    Authors: Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Mariella Errede, Giovanna Longo, Antonio d’Amati and Daniela Virgintino

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:14

    Content type: Review

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  21. Astrocytes (AC) are essential for brain homeostasis. Much data suggests that AC support and protect the vascular endothelium, but increasing evidence indicates that during injury conditions they may lose their...

    Authors: Julia Baumann, Chih-Chieh Tsao, Sheng-Fu Huang, Max Gassmann and Omolara O. Ogunshola

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:13

    Content type: Research

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  22. Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging, PC MRI, is a valuable tool allowing for non-invasive quantification of CSF dynamics, but has lacked adoption in clinical practice for Chiari malformation diagnostics....

    Authors: Gwendolyn Williams, Suraj Thyagaraj, Audrey Fu, John Oshinski, Daniel Giese, Alexander C. Bunck, Eleonora Fornari, Francesco Santini, Mark Luciano, Francis Loth and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  23. Studies of mammalian CSF dynamics have been focused on three things: paravascular flow, pressure and pulsatility, and “bulk” flow; and three (respective) potential motive forces have been identified: vasomotor...

    Authors: Bruce A. Young, James Adams, Jonathan M. Beary, Kent-Andre Mardal, Robert Schneider and Tatyana Kondrashova

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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  24. Failure to clear Aβ from the brain is partly responsible for Aβ brain accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A critical protein for clearing Aβ across the blood-brain barrier is the efflux transporter P-gly...

    Authors: Yujie Ding, Yu Zhong, Andrea Baldeshwiler, Erin L. Abner, Björn Bauer and Anika M. S. Hartz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  25. Pilz et al. (Fluids Barriers CNS 17:7; 2020) investigated how CSF CXCL13 concentrations are influenced by CXCL13 serum concentrations and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) function, comparing the impact of serum CXCL1...

    Authors: Krista D. DiSano, Francesca Gilli and Andrew R. Pachner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:9

    Content type: Commentary

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  26. Astronauts undergoing long-duration spaceflight are exposed to numerous health risks, including Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome (SANS), a spectrum of ophthalmic changes that can result in permanen...

    Authors: Arslan M. Zahid, Bryn Martin, Stephanie Collins, John N. Oshinski and C. Ross Ethier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  27. Neonatal encephalopathy often leads to lifelong disabilities with limited treatments currently available. The brain vasculature is an important factor in many neonatal neurological disorders but there is a lac...

    Authors: E. Axel Andersson, Carina Mallard and C. Joakim Ek

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  28. Adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) play an important role in drug pharmacokinetics by actively effluxing their substrates at barrier interfaces, including the blo...

    Authors: Liam M. Koehn, Katarzyna M. Dziegielewska, Mark D. Habgood, Yifan Huang and Norman R. Saunders

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

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  29. It has been shown that idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in children is associated with cerebral hyperemia, which induces an increase in cerebral venous pressure. The current literature suggests venou...

    Authors: Alexander Robert Bateman, Grant Alexander Bateman and Tracie Barber

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

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  30. Approximately 30% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt systems for hydrocephalus fail within the first year and 98% of all patients will have shunt failure in their lifetime. Obstruction remains the most common ...

    Authors: Carolyn A. Harris, Diego M. Morales, Rooshan Arshad, James P. McAllister II and David D. Limbrick Jr

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  31. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. It is an irreversible condition marked by irreversible cognitive loss, commonly attributed to the loss of hippocampal neurons due ...

    Authors: Snehal Raut, Ronak Patel and Abraham J. Al-Ahmad

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:3

    Content type: Research

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  32. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a growing health concern due to the increased use of low-cost improvised explosive devices in modern warfare. Mild blast exposures are common amongst military per...

    Authors: Gozde Uzunalli, Seth Herr, Alexandra M. Dieterly, Riyi Shi and L. Tiffany Lyle

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  33. Large differences in glymphatic system transport—similar in magnitude to those of the sleep/wake cycle—have been observed during anesthesia with dexmedetomidine supplemented with low dose isoflurane (DEXM-I) i...

    Authors: Burhan O. Ozturk, Brittany Monte, Sunil Koundal, Feng Dai, Helene Benveniste and Hedok Lee

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:1

    Content type: Research

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  34. Hydrocephalus, the pathological expansion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cerebral ventricles, is a common, deadly disease. In the adult, cardiac and respiratory forces are the main drivers of CSF flow...

    Authors: A. H. Dur, T. Tang, S. Viviano, A. Sekuri, H. R. Willsey, H. D. Tagare, K. T. Kahle and E. Deniz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:72

    Content type: Research

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  35. Continuous circulation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are essential for the elimination of CSF-borne metabolic products and neuronal function. While multiple CSF drainage pathways have been identifi...

    Authors: Molly Brady, Akib Rahman, Abigail Combs, Chethana Venkatraman, R. Tristan Kasper, Conor McQuaid, Wing-Chi Edmund Kwok, Ronald W. Wood and Rashid Deane

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:71

    Content type: Research

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  36. The permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is mainly determined by junction complexes between adjacent endothelial cells (ECs), including tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs), which...

    Authors: Xinwang Ying, Qingfeng Xie, Shengcun Li, Xiaolan Yu, Kecheng Zhou, Jingjing Yue, Xiaolong Chen, Wenzhan Tu, Guanhu Yang and Songhe Jiang

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:70

    Content type: Research

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  37. The pia arachnoid complex (PAC) is a cerebrospinal fluid-filled tissue conglomerate that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Pia mater adheres directly to the surface of the brain while the arachnoid mater ad...

    Authors: Gabryel Conley Natividad, Sophia K. Theodossiou, Nathan R. Schiele, Gordon K. Murdoch, Alkiviadis Tsamis, Bertrand Tanner, Gabriel Potirniche, Martin Mortazavi, David A. Vorp and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:68

    Content type: Research

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  38. The importance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diagnostics for psychiatry is growing. The CSF/blood albumin quotient (QAlb) is considered to be a measure of the blood–CSF barrier function. Recently, systematically h...

    Authors: Sophie Meixensberger, Karl Bechter, Rick Dersch, Bernd Feige, Simon Maier, Miriam A. Schiele, Kimon Runge, Dominik Denzel, Kathrin Nickel, Derek Spieler, Horst Urbach, Harald Prüss, Katharina Domschke, Ludger Tebartz van Elst and Dominique Endres

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  39. Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are small structures without a blood–brain barrier surrounding the brain ventricles that serve homeostasic functions and facilitate communication between the blood, cerebrospina...

    Authors: Inge C. M. Verheggen, Joost J. A. de Jong, Martin P. J. van Boxtel, Alida A. Postma, Frans R. J. Verhey, Jacobus F. A. Jansen and Walter H. Backes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  40. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by an opportunistic infection with JC polyoma virus (JCPyV) and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. It leads to pronounced demyelination of the...

    Authors: Nora Möhn, Yi Luo, Thomas Skripuletz, Philipp Schwenkenbecher, Anne Ladwig, Clemens Warnke, Sven G. Meuth, Heinz Wiendl, Catharina C. Gross, Christoph Schröder, Aiden Haghikia and Martin Stangel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:65

    Content type: Research

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  41. In 2012, we provided the first published evidence that human pluripotent stem cells could be differentiated to cells exhibiting markers and phenotypes characteristic of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In the en...

    Authors: Ethan S. Lippmann, Samira M. Azarin, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:64

    Content type: Commentary

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  42. Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) plays an important role in long-term monitoring and neuro-intensive treatment of patients with a cerebral shunt. Currently, only two complete telemetric implants with...

    Authors: S. Rot, M. Dweek, P. Gutowski, L. Goelz, U. Meier and J. Lemcke

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:63

    Content type: Research

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  43. Understanding the pathophysiology of the blood brain–barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions. Applying a sensitive and specific LC–MS/MS technique for the measureme...

    Authors: Behnam Noorani, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Faleh Alqahtani, Yeseul Ahn, Dhavalkumar Patel, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Reza Mehvar and Ulrich Bickel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  44. The microvasculature (MV) of brains with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), in the absence of concurrent pathologies (e.g., infarctions, Lewy bodies), is i...

    Authors: Mamatha Damodarasamy, Robert B. Vernon, Jasmine L. Pathan, C. Dirk Keene, Anthony J. Day, William A. Banks and May J. Reed

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:60

    Content type: Research

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  45. Children referred to a tertiary hospital for the indication, “rule out idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)” may have an increased risk of raised venous sinus pressure. An increase in sinus pressure coul...

    Authors: Grant Alexander Bateman, Gopinath Musuwadi Subramanian, Swee Leong Yap and Alexander Robert Bateman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  46. The choroid plexus is a major contributor to the generation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the maintenance of its electrolyte and metabolite balance. Here, we sought to characterize the blood flow dynamics o...

    Authors: Li Zhao, Manuel Taso, Weiying Dai, Daniel Z. Press and David C. Alsop

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

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  47. The pathophysiological basis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is still unclear. Previous studies have shown a familial aggregation and a potential heritability when it comes to iNPH. Our aim ...

    Authors: Joel Räsänen, Joel Huovinen, Ville E. Korhonen, Antti Junkkari, Sami Kastinen, Simo Komulainen, Minna Oinas, Cecilia Avellan, Janek Frantzen, Jaakko Rinne, Antti Ronkainen, Mikko Kauppinen, Kimmo Lönnrot, Markus Perola, Anne M. Koivisto, Anne M. Remes…

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:57

    Content type: Research

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  48. David S. Miller was Acting Scientific Director of the Division of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and Head of the Intracellular Re...

    Authors: Björn Bauer, J. Larry Renfro, Karl J. Karnaky Jr., Rosalinde Masereeuw, Gert Fricker, Ron E. Cannon and Anika M. S. Hartz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short paper

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