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  1. Content type: Research

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) ensures central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis by strictly controlling the passage of molecules and solutes from the bloodstream into the CNS. Complex and continuous tight junct...

    Authors: Mariana Castro Dias, Caroline Coisne, Pascale Baden, Gaby Enzmann, Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Sabine M. Hölter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Urban Deutsch and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:30

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  2. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the author has reported that in Figure 1 (b and c) the y-axis TEER (© x cm2) should be replaced with TEER (Ω x cm2).

    Authors: Scott G. Canfield, Matthew J. Stebbins, Madeline G. Faubion, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:31

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:25

  3. Content type: Short paper

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by infection with John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCPyV) in immune-compromised patients, is a serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system...

    Authors: Nora Möhn, Yi Luo, Thomas Skripuletz, Philipp Schwenkenbecher, Inga Zerr, Peter Lange and Martin Stangel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:28

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  4. Content type: Research

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise for use in cell therapy applications and for improved in vitro models of human disease. So far, most hiPSC differentiation protocols to astroglia...

    Authors: Louise Delsing, Therése Kallur, Henrik Zetterberg, Ryan Hicks and Jane Synnergren

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:27

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  5. Content type: Short paper

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious life threatening infection of the CNS. To cause meningitis, blood–borne bacteria need to interact with and penetrate brain endothelial cells (BECs) that comprise the blood–bra...

    Authors: Brandon J. Kim, Maura A. McDonagh, Liwen Deng, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir, Kelly S. Doran and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:26

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  6. Content type: Research

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) astrocytes, neurons, and pericytes form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Interactions with NVU cells endow BMECs with extremely tight barriers via the expression of t...

    Authors: Scott G. Canfield, Matthew J. Stebbins, Madeline G. Faubion, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:25

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:31

  7. Content type: Research

    The Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting protocol is described together with the initial outcomes of 175 patients with probable iN...

    Authors: A. Junkkari, A. J. Luikku, N. Danner, H. K. Jyrkkänen, T. Rauramaa, V. E. Korhonen, A. M. Koivisto, O. Nerg, M. Kojoukhova, T. J. Huttunen, J. E. Jääskeläinen and V. Leinonen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:21

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  8. Content type: Research

    Blood–brain barrier dysfunction is associated with many late-stage neurodegenerative diseases. An emerging question is whether the mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases can independently lead to...

    Authors: Moriah E. Katt, Lakyn N. Mayo, Shannon E. Ellis, Vasiliki Mahairaki, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Linzhao Cheng and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:20

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  9. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Solutes can enter and leave gray matter in the brain by perivascular routes. The glymphatic hypothesis supposes that these movements are a consequence of inward flow along periarterial spaces and an equal outw...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:6

    The Letter to the Editor Response to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

  10. Content type: Letter to the Editor Response

    In our work, “Analysis of Convective and Diffusive Transport in the Brain Interstitium”, published in this journal (2019, 16:6), we estimate the interstitial superficial velocity by comparison of transport model ...

    Authors: Lori Ray, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

  11. Content type: Correction

    After publication of this supplement [1], it was brought to our attention that in the results the line “(0.3 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, and 0.54 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, respectively)” should actually read “(0.54 ± 0.04 m...

    Authors: Adjanie Patabendige, Nick MacKovski, Debbie Pepperall, Rebecca Hood and Neil Spratt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:22

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:16

  12. Content type: Research

    Immune cell trafficking into the CNS is considered to contribute to pathogenesis in MS and its animal model, EAE. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of these pathologies and a potential ...

    Authors: Shujun Ge, Xi Jiang, Debayon Paul, Li Song, Xiaofang Wang and Joel S. Pachter

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:18

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  13. Content type: Research

    Periarterial spaces (PASs) are annular channels that surround arteries in the brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a flow of CSF in these channels is thought to be an important part of the brain’s syst...

    Authors: Jeffrey Tithof, Douglas H. Kelley, Humberto Mestre, Maiken Nedergaard and John H. Thomas

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:19

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  14. Content type: Research

    Altered flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space (SAS) is connected to brain, but also optic nerve degenerative diseases. To overcome the lack of suitable in vitro models that faithfully...

    Authors: Albert Neutzner, Laura Power, Markus Dürrenberger, Hendrik P. N. Scholl, Peter Meyer, Hanspeter E. Killer, David Wendt and Corina Kohler

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:17

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  15. Content type: Research

    Pericytes of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are embedded within basement membrane between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocyte end-feet. Despite the direct cell–cell contact observed in v...

    Authors: John J. Jamieson, Raleigh M. Linville, Yuan Yuan Ding, Sharon Gerecht and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:15

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  16. Content type: Research

    Brain endothelial cell-based in vitro models are among the most versatile tools in blood–brain barrier research for testing drug penetration to the central nervous system. Transcytosis of large pharmaceuticals...

    Authors: Andrea E. Toth, Simone S. E. Nielsen, Weronika Tomaka, N. Joan Abbott and Morten S. Nielsen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:14

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  17. Content type: Research

    As an alternative to advection, solute transport by shear-augmented dispersion within oscillatory cerebrospinal fluid flow was investigated in small channels representing the basement membranes located between...

    Authors: M. Keith Sharp, Roxana O. Carare and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:13

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  18. Content type: Research

    Fluid dynamics of the craniospinal system are complex and still not completely understood. In vivo flow and pressure measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are limited. Whereas in silico modeling can be...

    Authors: Anne Benninghaus, Olivier Balédent, Armelle Lokossou, Carlos Castelar, Steffen Leonhardt and Klaus Radermacher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:11

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  19. Content type: Research

    Respiration-induced pressure changes represent a powerful driving force of CSF dynamics as previously demonstrated using flow-sensitive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present st...

    Authors: Gökmen Aktas, Jost M. Kollmeier, Arun A. Joseph, Klaus-Dietmar Merboldt, Hans-Christoph Ludwig, Jutta Gärtner, Jens Frahm and Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:10

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  20. Content type: Research

    The central nervous system was previously thought to draw oxygen and nutrition from the arteries and discharge carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes into the venous system. At present, the functional role ...

    Authors: Tetsuya Akaishi, Eiko Onishi, Michiaki Abe, Hiroaki Toyama, Kota Ishizawa, Michio Kumagai, Ryosuke Kubo, Ichiro Nakashima, Masashi Aoki, Masanori Yamauchi and Tadashi Ishii

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:8

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  21. Content type: Research

    Fluid homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for normal neurological function. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and interstitial fluid circulation in the CNS parenchyma...

    Authors: Joel A. Berliner, Thomas Woodcock, Elmira Najafi, Sarah J. Hemley, Magdalena Lam, Shaokoon Cheng, Lynne E. Bilston and Marcus A. Stoodley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:7

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  22. Content type: Research

    Despite advances in in vivo imaging and experimental techniques, the nature of transport mechanisms in the brain remain elusive. Mathematical modelling verified using available experimental data offers a power...

    Authors: Lori Ray, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:6

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    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

  23. Content type: Review

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a subtype of hydrocephalus that occurs more often in the elderly population. It is usually characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinenc...

    Authors: Miles Hudson, Caden Nowak, Richard J. Garling and Carolyn Harris

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:5

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  24. Content type: Review

    Tight junction proteins of the blood–brain barrier are vital for maintaining integrity of endothelial cells lining brain blood vessels. The presence of these protein complexes in the space between endothelial ...

    Authors: Chris Greene, Nicole Hanley and Matthew Campbell

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:3

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  25. Content type: Research

    This study investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics using cine phase-contrast MRI in the cerebral aqueduct and the prepontine cistern between three distinct groups: pre-shunt normal pressure hydroc...

    Authors: Robert B. Hamilton, Fabien Scalzo, Kevin Baldwin, Amber Dorn, Paul Vespa, Xiao Hu and Marvin Bergsneider

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:2

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  26. Content type: Research

    Type II diabetes is a vascular risk factor for cognitive impairment and increased risk of dementia. Disruption of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and blood–brain barrier (BBB) are hallmarks of subsequent retin...

    Authors: Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield and William A. Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:1

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  27. Content type: Research

    Type 1 Chiari malformation (CM-I) has been historically defined by cerebellar tonsillar position (TP) greater than 3–5 mm below the foramen magnum (FM). Often, the radiographic findings are highly variable, wh...

    Authors: Braden J. Lawrence, Aintzane Urbizu, Philip A. Allen, Francis Loth, R. Shane Tubbs, Alexander C. Bunck, Jan-Robert Kröger, Brandon G. Rocque, Casey Madura, Jason A. Chen, Mark G. Luciano, Richard G. Ellenbogen, John N. Oshinski, Bermans J. Iskandar and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:33

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  28. Content type: Research

    The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF product...

    Authors: Shawn Kant, Edward G. Stopa, Conrad E. Johanson, Andrew Baird and Gerald D. Silverberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:34

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  29. Content type: Review

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in regulating transport into and out of the brain. With increasing interest in the role of the BBB in health and disease, there have been significant advances in ...

    Authors: Jackson G. DeStefano, John J. Jamieson, Raleigh M. Linville and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:32

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  30. Content type: Research

    The distribution of cranio-spinal compliance (CSC) in the brain and spinal cord is a fundamental question, as it would determine the overall role of the compartments in modulating ICP in healthy and diseased s...

    Authors: Ritambhar Burman, Noam Alperin, Sang H. Lee and Brigit Ertl-Wagner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:29

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  31. Content type: Short paper

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a crucial method in the diagnostic process for suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), especially when cerebral imaging is negative or inconclusive. CSF cytology (detecti...

    Authors: R. Dersch, D. Benkler, T. Robinson, A. Baumgartner, S. Rauer and O. Stich

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:31

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  32. Content type: Review

    This review considers efflux of substances from brain parenchyma quantified as values of clearances (CL, stated in µL g−1 min−1). Total clearance of a substance is the sum of clearance values for all available ro...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:30

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  33. Content type: Research

    Nanotubular structures, denoted tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described in recent times as involved in cell-to-cell communication between distant cells. Nevertheless, TNT-like, long filopodial processes...

    Authors: Mariella Errede, Domenica Mangieri, Giovanna Longo, Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Antonella Vimercati, Gabriella Serio, Karl Frei, Roberto Perris and Daniela Virgintino

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:28

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  34. Content type: Research

    Cerebral edema can cause life-threatening increase in intracranial pressure. Besides surgical craniectomy performed in severe cases, osmotherapy may be employed to lower the intracranial pressure by osmotic ex...

    Authors: Eva Kjer Oernbo, Kasper Lykke, Annette Buur Steffensen, Kathrin Töllner, Christina Kruuse, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Wolfgang Löscher and Nanna MacAulay

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:27

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  35. Content type: Research

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and dementia. Both in humans and animal models of hypertension, neuropathological features such as brain atrophy and oedem...

    Authors: Daphne M. P. Naessens, Judith de Vos, Ed VanBavel and Erik N. T. P. Bakker

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:26

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  36. Content type: Review

    Breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) or inner blood–retinal barrier (BRB), induced by pathologically elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other mediators, can lead to vasogenic...

    Authors: Esmeralda K. Bosma, Cornelis J. F. van Noorden, Reinier O. Schlingemann and Ingeborg Klaassen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:24

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  37. Content type: Research

    Targeting endogenous blood–brain barrier (BBB) transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of neurological diseases. Advancement of Oatp...

    Authors: Hrvoje Brzica, Wazir Abdullahi, Bianca G. Reilly and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:25

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  38. Content type: Research

    Receptor-mediated transcytosis is one of the major routes for drug delivery of large molecules into the brain. The aim of this study was to develop a novel model of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) in a hig...

    Authors: Nienke R. Wevers, Dhanesh G. Kasi, Taylor Gray, Karlijn J. Wilschut, Benjamin Smith, Remko van Vught, Fumitaka Shimizu, Yasuteru Sano, Takashi Kanda, Graham Marsh, Sebastiaan J. Trietsch, Paul Vulto, Henriëtte L. Lanz and Birgit Obermeier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:23

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  39. Content type: Research

    Choroid plexus epithelial cells express high levels of transthyretin, produce cerebrospinal fluid and many of its proteins, and make up the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Choroid plexus epithelial cells ar...

    Authors: Brett A. Johnson, Margaret Coutts, Hillary M. Vo, Xinya Hao, Nida Fatima, Maria J. Rivera, Robert J. Sims, Michael J. Neel, Young-Jin Kang and Edwin S. Monuki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:22

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  40. Content type: Research

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of abnormally high intracranial pressure with an unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to characterize craniospinal compliance and measure t...

    Authors: Monica D. Okon, Cynthia J. Roberts, Ashraf M. Mahmoud, Andrew N. Springer, Robert H. Small, John M. McGregor and Steven E. Katz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:21

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  41. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disturbances may occur during the course of disease in patients with glioblastoma. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting has generally been recommended to improve symptoms in glio...

    Authors: Bujung Hong, Manolis Polemikos, Hans E. Heissler, Christian Hartmann, Makoto Nakamura and Joachim K. Krauss

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:16

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