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  1. Review

    Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau levels in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta amyloid 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as potential diagn...

    Zhongyun Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jie Zhang, Norman Relkin, Yan Xing and Yanfeng Li

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:13

    Published on: 10 May 2017

  2. Review

    NIH workshop report on the trans-agency blood–brain interface workshop 2016: exploring key challenges and opportunities associated with the blood, brain and their interface

    A trans-agency workshop on the blood–brain interface (BBI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute and the Combat Casualty Care Research Program at the Departm...

    Margaret J. Ochocinska, Berislav V. Zlokovic, Peter C. Searson, A. Tamara Crowder, Richard P. Kraig, Julia Y. Ljubimova, Todd G. Mainprize, William A. Banks, Ronald Q. Warren, Andrei Kindzelski, William Timmer and Christina H. Liu

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:12

    Published on: 1 May 2017

  3. Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of iron status are associated with CSF viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and demographic factors in HIV-infected adults

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in...

    Stephanie M. Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R. Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L. Letendre, Ronald J. Ellis, William S. Bush, David C. Samuels, Donald R. Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant and Asha R. Kallianpur

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:11

    Published on: 21 April 2017

  4. Short Paper

    Frontotemporal dementia as a comorbidity to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): a short review of literature and an unusual case

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive...

    V. E. Korhonen, E. Solje, N. M. Suhonen, T. Rauramaa, R. Vanninen, A. M. Remes and V. Leinonen

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:10

    Published on: 19 April 2017

  5. Research

    Accelerated differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells to blood–brain barrier endothelial cells

    Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular e...

    Emma K. Hollmann, Amanda K. Bailey, Archit V. Potharazu, M. Diana Neely, Aaron B. Bowman and Ethan S. Lippmann

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:9

    Published on: 13 April 2017

  6. Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in meningeosis neoplastica: a retrospective 12-year analysis

    Meningeosis neoplastica is a diffuse metastatic spread of tumor cells in the subarachnoid space. Although first recognized in 1870, systematic investigations regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constituents in...

    Marija Djukic, Ralf Trimmel, Ingelore Nagel, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Christine Stadelmann and Roland Nau

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:7

    Published on: 28 March 2017

  7. Review

    The choroid plexus as a site of damage in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and its role in responding to injury

    While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood–brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has recei...

    Jianming Xiang, Lisa J. Routhe, D. Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi and Richard F. Keep

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:8

    Published on: 28 March 2017

  8. Research

    Nrf2 signaling increases expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C mRNA transcripts at the blood–brain barrier following hypoxia-reoxygenation stress

    Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resista...

    Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell and Patrick T. Ronaldson

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:6

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  9. Research

    The MRZ reaction in primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) pati...

    Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly and Oliver Stich

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:2

    Published on: 7 February 2017

  10. Research

    A change in brain white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a tract-based spatial statistics study

    The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

    Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi and Etsuro Mori

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:1

    Published on: 30 January 2017

  11. Research

    Permeability across a novel microfluidic blood-tumor barrier model

    The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the ...

    Tori B. Terrell-Hall, Amanda G. Ammer, Jessica I. G. Griffith and Paul R. Lockman

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:3

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  12. Research

    Misleading early blood volume changes obtained using ferumoxytol-based magnetic resonance imaging perfusion in high grade glial neoplasms treated with bevacizumab

    Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast mag...

    Joao Prola Netto, Daniel Schwartz, Csanad Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Bronwyn Hamilton and Edward A. Neuwelt

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:23

    Published on: 20 December 2016

  13. Research

    Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of urate transporters GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2, and URAT1 in the murine brain

    Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate t...

    Naoko H. Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida and Makoto Hosoyamada

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:22

    Published on: 12 December 2016

  14. Research

    Improving the clinical management of traumatic brain injury through the pharmacokinetic modeling of peripheral blood biomarkers

    Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dep...

    Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi and Damir Janigro

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:21

    Published on: 30 November 2016

  15. Research

    Early and delayed assessments of quantitative gait measures to improve the tap test as a predictor of shunt effectiveness in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic...

    Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Kazuo Yamamoto

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:20

    Published on: 22 November 2016

  16. Research

    A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS?

    It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matte...

    Grant A. Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott and Rodney A. Lea

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:18

    Published on: 22 September 2016

  17. Review

    The restorative role of annexin A1 at the blood–brain barrier

    Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have...

    Simon McArthur, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Elisa Maggioli, Mariella Errede, Daniela Virgintino and Egle Solito

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:17

    Published on: 21 September 2016

  18. Research

    Small cisterno-lumbar gradient of phosphorylated Tau protein in geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood...

    Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang and Roland Nau

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:15

    Published on: 31 August 2016

  19. Research

    Amyloid mis-metabolism in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and ...

    A. Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, C. Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg

    Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2016 13:13

    Published on: 29 July 2016

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