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  1. The choroid plexus functions as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, plays an important role in CSF production and circulation, and has gained increased attention in light of the recent elucidation of ...

    Authors: Jarrod J. Eisma, Colin D. McKnight, Kilian Hett, Jason Elenberger, Caleb J. Han, Alexander K. Song, Ciaran Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:21
  2. Impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and the optic nerve (ON), including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseas...

    Authors: Diego Rossinelli, Gilles Fourestey, Hanspeter Esriel Killer, Albert Neutzner, Gianluca Iaccarino, Luca Remonda and Jatta Berberat
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:20
  3. Syringomyelia (SM) is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities, referred to as syrinxes, within the spinal cord tissue. The molecular etiology of SM post-spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well u...

    Authors: Dipak D. Pukale, Kayla Adkins-Travis, Siddhartha R. Aryal, Leah P. Shriver, Gary J. Patti and Nic D. Leipzig
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:19
  4. Laminin-α5, a major component of the basal lamina, is predominantly synthesized by endothelial and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) in the CNS. Loss of laminin-α5 in either population f...

    Authors: Abhijit Nirwane, Minkyung Kang, Aravinthan Adithan, Vrishni Maharaj, Felicia Nguyen, Elliot Santaella Aguilar, Ava Nasrollahi and Yao Yao
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:18
  5. Interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies can be challenging in preterm infants. We hypothesized that intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and infection (meningiti...

    Authors: Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Alexander T. Yahanda, Albert M. Isaacs, Brandon Baksh, S. Hassan A. Akbari, Haley Botteron, Diego M. Morales, Rowland H. Han, James P. McAllister II, Amit M. Mathur, Jennifer M. Strahle, Christopher D. Smyser and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:17
  6. Patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are predisposed to developing dementing disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt implantation is a treatment used to improve the motor and cognit...

    Authors: Pao-Hui Tseng, Wan-Ting Huang, Jen-Hung Wang, Bor-Ren Huang, Hsin-Yi Huang and Sheng-Tzung Tsai
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:16
  7. Peri-sinus structures such as arachnoid granulations (AG) and the parasagittal dural (PSD) space have gained much recent attention as sites of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) egress and neuroimmune surveillance. N...

    Authors: Kilian Hett, Colin D. McKnight, Melanie Leguizamon, Jennifer S. Lindsey, Jarrod J. Eisma, Jason Elenberger, Adam J. Stark, Alexander K. Song, Megan Aumann, Ciaran M. Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:15
  8. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome could offer important insights into central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. To advance proteomic research in pediatric CNS cancer, the current study aims to (1) evalua...

    Authors: Christian Mirian, Maria Thastrup, René Mathiasen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jesper Velgaard Olsen and Ole Østergaard
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:14
  9. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a major unmet medical need that currently has no preventive and/or curative treatment. This is, among others, driven by a poor understanding of the ...

    Authors: Yang Hu, Milda Girdenyté, Lieke Roest, Iida Liukkonen, Maria Siskou, Frida Bällgren, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes and Irena Loryan
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:13
  10. Inside the incompressible cranium, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid is directly linked to blood volume: a change in either will induce a compensatory change in the other. Vasodilatory lowering of blood pressu...

    Authors: Jari Jukkola, Mika Kaakinen, Abhishek Singh, Sadegh Moradi, Hany Ferdinando, Teemu Myllylä, Vesa Kiviniemi and Lauri Eklund
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:12
  11. Intro: Reliable estimates of drug uptake from blood to brain parenchyma are crucial in CNS drug discovery and development. While in vivo Kp,uu,brain estimates are the gold standard for investigating brain drug di...

    Authors: Kristine Langthaler, Christopher R. Jones, Lasse Saaby, Christoffer Bundgaard and Birger Brodin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:11
  12. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome exhibiting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), visual disturbances, and severe headache. IIH primarily affects young obese women, though it can occur ...

    Authors: Jonathan H. Wardman, Søren Norge Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Mette Nyholm Jensen, Jens E. Wilhjelm, Bjarne Styrishave, Steffen Hamann, Steffen Heegaard, Alexandra J. Sinclair and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:10
  13. The Hindbrain Choroid Plexus is a complex, cerebrospinal fluid-secreting tissue that projects into the 4th vertebrate brain ventricle. Despite its irreplaceability in the development and homeostasis of the ent...

    Authors: Viktória Parobková, Petra Kompaníková, Jakub Lázňovský, Michaela Kavková, Marek Hampl, Marcela Buchtová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser and Vítězslav Bryja
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:9
  14. Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is one of the key mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Astrocytes interact with endothelial and regulate BBB integrity via paracrin...

    Authors: Ying Hou, Ye Xie, Xiaoxuan Liu, Yushan Chen, Fangfang Zhou and Binbin Yang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:8
  15. Perivascular spaces (PVSs) carry cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the brain, facilitating healthy waste clearance. Measuring those flows in vivo is difficult, and often impossible, because PVSs are small, so a...

    Authors: Kimberly A. S. Boster, Jiatong Sun, Jessica K. Shang, Douglas H. Kelley and John H. Thomas
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:7
  16. The brain extracellular fluid (ECF), composed of secreted neurotransmitters, metabolites, peptides, and proteins, may reflect brain processes. Analysis of brain ECF may provide new potential markers for synapt...

    Authors: Vanda Tukacs, Dániel Mittli, Éva Hunyadi-Gulyás, Zsuzsanna Darula, Gábor Juhász, József Kardos and Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:6
  17. Appropriate interactions between antiretroviral therapies (ART) and drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes at the blood brain barrier (BBB) are critical to ensure adequate dosing of the brain to achieve HI...

    Authors: Rodnie Colón Ortiz, Stephen Knerler, Lisa B. Fridman, Alicia Mercado, Amira-Storm Price, Jose J. Rosado-Franco, Hannah Wilkins, Bianca R. Flores, Benjamin C. Orsburn and Dionna W. Williams
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:5
  18. CSF has long been accepted to circulate throughout the subarachnoid space, which lies between the arachnoid and pia maters of the meninges. How the CSF interacts with the cellular components of the developing ...

    Authors: Shelei Pan, Joshua P. Koleske, Gretchen M. Koller, Grace L. Halupnik, Abdul-Haq O. Alli, Shriya Koneru, Dakota DeFreitas, Sruthi Ramagiri and Jennifer M. Strahle
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:4
  19. Many neuroscientists use the term Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) to emphasize restrictiveness, often equating or reducing the notion of BBB properties to tight junction molecules physically sealing cerebral endothe...

    Authors: Jerome Badaut, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Robert G. Thorne and Jan Pieter Konsman
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:3
  20. Proper cerebrovascular development and neurogliovascular unit assembly are essential for brain growth and function throughout life, ensuring the continuous supply of nutrients and oxygen. This involves crucial...

    Authors: Adeline Collignon, Laurence Dion-Albert, Caroline Ménard and Vanessa Coelho-Santos
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:2
  21. It has been proposed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can enter and leave the retina and optic nerve along perivascular spaces surrounding the central retinal vessels as part of an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) dependent o...

    Authors: Xiao J. Tong, Gokhan Akdemir, Meetu Wadhwa, Alan S. Verkman and Alex J. Smith
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2024 21:1
  22. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a complex structure that facilitates nutrient delivery and metabolic waste clearance, forms the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and supports fluid homeostasis in the brain. The integ...

    Authors: Ella Rowsthorn, William Pham, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Meng Law, Matthew P. Pase and Ian H. Harding
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:97
  23. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary murine, bovine, and porcine brain capillary endothelial cell cultures have long been regarded as robust models with appropriate properties to examine the funct...

    Authors: Burak Ozgür, Elena Puris, Andreas Brachner, Antje Appelt-Menzel, Sabrina Oerter, Viktor Balzer, Mikkel Roland Holst, Rasmus Folmann Christiansen, Kathrine Hyldig, Stephen T. Buckley, Mie Kristensen, Seppo Auriola, Allan Jensen, Gert Fricker, Morten Schallburg Nielsen, Winfried Neuhaus…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:96
  24. Autoreactive T lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) play a crucial role in the initiation of demyelination and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). ...

    Authors: Baharak Hosseinkhani, Gayel Duran, Cindy Hoeks, Doryssa Hermans, Melissa Schepers, Paulien Baeten, Joren Poelmans, Britt Coenen, Kübra Bekar, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Tim Vanmierlo, Luc Michiels, Niels Hellings and Bieke Broux
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:95
  25. Microdialysis is a technique that can be utilized to sample the interstitial fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), including in primary malignant brain tumors known as gliomas. Gliomas are mainly accessib...

    Authors: Cecile Riviere-Cazaux, Karishma Rajani, Masum Rahman, Juhee Oh, Desmond A. Brown, Jaclyn F. White, Benjamin T. Himes, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Moses Rodriguez, Arthur E. Warrington, Sani H. Kizilbash, William F. Elmquist and Terry C. Burns
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:94
  26. Traditionally, the meninges are described as 3 distinct layers, dura, arachnoid and pia. Yet, the classification of the connective meningeal membranes surrounding the brain is based on postmortem macroscopic e...

    Authors: Virginia Plá, Styliani Bitsika, Michael J Giannetto, Antonio Ladron-de-Guevara, Daniel Gahn-Martinez, Yuki Mori, Maiken Nedergaard and Kjeld Møllgård
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:93
  27. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) symptoms associated with liver insufficiency are linked to the neurotoxic effects of ammonia and other toxic metabolites reaching the brain via the blood–brain barrier (BBB), furthe...

    Authors: Karolina Orzeł-Gajowik, Krzysztof Milewski and Magdalena Zielińska
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:92
  28. The efficacy of intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage compared with that of continuous CSF drainage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains undetermined to date. Therefore, we investig...

    Authors: Tomoyasu Yamanaka, Yusuke Nishikawa, Takashi Iwata, Teishiki Shibata, Mitsuru Uchida, Yuki Hayashi, Hiroyuki Katano, Motoki Tanikawa, Shigeki Yamada and Mitsuhito Mase
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:91
  29. Current strategies to identify ligands for brain delivery select candidates based on preferential binding to cell-membrane components (CMC) on brain endothelial cells (EC). However, such strategies generate li...

    Authors: Giulia Maria Porro, Italo Lorandi, Xueying Liu, Kazunori Kataoka, Giuseppe Battaglia and Daniel Gonzalez-Carter
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:88
  30. Reissner’s fiber (RF) is an extracellular polymer comprising the large monomeric protein SCO-spondin (SSPO) secreted by the subcommissural organ (SCO) that extends through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled vent...

    Authors: Huixin Xu, Guillaume P. Dugué, Yasmine Cantaut-Belarif, François-Xavier Lejeune, Suhasini Gupta, Claire Wyart and Maria K. Lehtinen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:89
  31. The lack of accessible and informative biomarkers results in a delayed diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose symptoms appear when a significant number of dopaminergic neurons have already disappeared. T...

    Authors: Joan Serrano-Marín, Silvia Marin, David Bernal-Casas, Alejandro Lillo, Marc González-Subías, Gemma Navarro, Marta Cascante, Juan Sánchez-Navés and Rafael Franco
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:90
  32. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a selectively permeable membrane that separates the bloodstream from the brain. While useful for protecting neural tissue from harmful substances, brain-related diseases are di...

    Authors: Melanie E. M. Stamp, Michael Halwes, David Nisbet and David J. Collins
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:87
  33. Parenchymal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) characterizes Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ homeostasis is maintained by two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC1 and ABCB1) mediating efflux, and the rec...

    Authors: Amira Sayed Hanafy, Alf Lamprecht and Dirk Dietrich
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:85
  34. Most investigations into postural influences on craniospinal and adjacent physiology have been performed in anesthetized animals. A comprehensive study evaluating these physiologies while awake has yet been co...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Markus Florian Oertel, Margarete Arras, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:83
  35. Here, we report an experimental setup to benchmark different receptors for targeted therapeutic antibody delivery at the blood–brain barrier. We used brain capillary endothelial-like cells derived from induced...

    Authors: Mikkel Roland Holst, Nienke Marije de Wit, Burak Ozgür, Andreas Brachner, Kathrine Hyldig, Antje Appelt-Menzel, Hannah Sleven, Zameel Cader, Helga Eveline de Vries, Winfried Neuhaus, Allan Jensen, Birger Brodin and Morten Schallburg Nielsen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:82
  36. Cerebral vasospasm significantly contributes to poor prognosis and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Current research indicates that the pathological and physiological mechanisms o...

    Authors: Ziliang Hu, Xinpeng Deng, Shengjun Zhou, Chenhui Zhou, Menglu Shen, Xiang Gao and Yi Huang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:81
  37. Metastatic brain cancer has poor prognosis due to challenges in both detection and treatment. One contributor to poor prognosis is the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which severely limits the transport of therapeu...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Joanna Maressa, Zhaobin Guo, Tracy D. Chung, Alanna Farrell, Ria Jha and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:80
  38. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) plays a vital role in maintaining brain thyroid hormone homeostasis. This transmembrane transporter is expressed at the brain barriers, as the blood–brain barrier (BBB)...

    Authors: Marina Guillén-Yunta, Víctor Valcárcel-Hernández, Ángel García-Aldea, Guadalupe Soria, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Ana Montero-Pedrazuela and Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:79
  39. The function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is impaired in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), but the associated molecular mechanisms, particularly with respect to the high-risk APOE4/4 genotype, are not w...

    Authors: Undine Haferkamp, Carla Hartmann, Chaudhry Luqman Abid, Andreas Brachner, Alevtina Höchner, Anna Gerhartl, Bernadette Harwardt, Selin Leckzik, Jennifer Leu, Marco Metzger, Marina Nastainczyk-Wulf, Winfried Neuhaus, Sabrina Oerter, Ole Pless, Dan Rujescu, Matthias Jung…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:78
  40. The relationship between neurochemical changes and outcome after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), a treatable dementia and gait disorder, is unclear. We used baseline ventricul...

    Authors: Rebecca Grønning, Anna Jeppsson, Per Hellström, Katarina Laurell, Dan Farahmand, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Carsten Wikkelsø and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:77
  41. As a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection various neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms can appear, which may persist for several months post infection. However, cell type-specific routes of brain infect...

    Authors: Chiara Stüdle, Hideaki Nishihara, Sven Wischnewski, Laila Kulsvehagen, Sylvain Perriot, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Stephan Frank, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Renaud Du Pasquier, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Katrin Pröbstel and Britta Engelhardt
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:76
  42. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ requiring a large amount of glucose. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a by-product of glucose metabolism, is known to be involved in microvascular dysfunction and is associ...

    Authors: Eline Berends, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Sébastien Foulquier and Casper G Schalkwijk
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:75
  43. The meninges surround the brain and spinal cord, affording physical protection while also serving as a niche of neuroimmune activity. Though possessing stromal qualities, its complex cellular and extracellular...

    Authors: Elise Santorella, Jeremy L. Balsbaugh, Shujun Ge, Parisa Saboori, David Baker and Joel S. Pachter
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:74
  44. Compromised structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the pathological hallmarks of brain infection by HIV-1. BBB damage during HIV-1 infection has been associated with modified express...

    Authors: Silvia Torices, Leah Daire, Sierra Simon, Oandy Naranjo, Luisa Mendoza, Timea Teglas, Nikolai Fattakhov, Daniel Adesse and Michal Toborek
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:73
  45. Neuroinflammatory processes have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, but have rarely been investigated in patients with idiopa...

    Authors: Madelene Braun, Gustaf Boström, Martin Ingelsson, Lena Kilander, Malin Löwenmark, Dag Nyholm, Joachim Burman, Valter Niemelä, Eva Freyhult, Kim Kultima and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:72
  46. Intraventricular hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening condition. Approximately 20% of patients develop posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus with increased ventricular volume and intracranial pressure. Hydroce...

    Authors: Laura Øllegaard Johnsen, Kathrine Abildskov Friis and Helle Hasager Damkier
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:71
  47. Loss of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood–brain barrier contributes to amyloid-β (Aβ) brain accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using transgenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-overexpressing mic...

    Authors: Milica Vulin, Yu Zhong, Bryan J. Maloney, Björn Bauer and Anika M. S. Hartz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2023 20:70