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  1. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) occurs in 80% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is mainly caused by the abnormal deposition of Aβ in the walls of cerebral blood vessels. Cerebrovascular molecular...

    Authors: Takumi Handa, Hayate Sasaki, Masaki Takao, Mitsutoshi Tano and Yasuo Uchida
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:56
  2. Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance has previously not been established for neurological diseases. Possibly, variability in cerebrospinal fluid clearance may affect the underlyi...

    Authors: Markus Herberg Hovd, Espen Mariussen, Hilde Uggerud, Aslan Lashkarivand, Hege Christensen, Geir Ringstad and Per Kristian Eide
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:55
  3. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene, which leads to neuronal loss and decline in cognitive a...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Renée F. Nerenberg, Gabrielle Grifno, Diego Arevalo, Zhaobin Guo and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:54
  4. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in many neurological pathologies, e.g. hydrocephalus and stroke. This condition is routinely relieved with neurosurgical approaches, since effective and targete...

    Authors: Dagne Barbuskaite, Eva K. Oernbo, Jonathan H. Wardman, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Eller Conti, Søren N. Andreassen, Niklas J. Gerkau, Christine R. Rose and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:53
  5. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is currently unknown. With no visible obstructions, altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may explain the accumulation of ventricular fluid....

    Authors: Eva Kjer Oernbo, Annette Buur Steffensen, Hanne Gredal, Helle Harding Poulsen, Nina Rostgaard, Cecilie Holm Rasmussen, Marlene Møller-Nissen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Marianne Juhler and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:52
  6. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological condition with gait apraxia signs from its early manifestation. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is a surgical procedure available for treatmen...

    Authors: Alberto Ferrari, David Milletti, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Giulia Giannini, Sabina Cevoli, Elena Magelli, Luca Albini-Riccioli, Paolo Mantovani, Pietro Cortelli, Lorenzo Chiari and Giorgio Palandri
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:51
  7. The brain requires iron for a number of processes, including energy production. Inadequate or excessive amounts of iron can be detrimental and lead to a number of neurological disorders. As such, regulation of...

    Authors: Stephanie L. Baringer, Elizabeth B. Neely, Kondaiah Palsa, Ian A. Simpson and James R. Connor
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:49
  8. This editorial highlights advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2021. It covers research on components of the blood–brain barrier, neurovascular unit and brain fluid systems; how brain barriers...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:48
  9. Severe neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood induces dramatic neurological impairment. Central oxidative stress and an inflammatory response have been associat...

    Authors: Sandrine Blondel, Nathalie Strazielle, Amel Amara, Rainui Guy, Christine Bain, Alix Rose, Laurent Guibaud, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin and Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:47
  10. Knowledge of the entry receptors responsible for SARS-CoV-2 is key to understand the neural transmission and pathogenesis of COVID-19 characterized by a neuroinflammatory scenario. Understanding the brain dist...

    Authors: Yong Zhang, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Yashwardhan Ghanwatkar, Sejal Sharma, Saeideh Nozohouri, Elizabeth Burks, Alexander Mdzinarishvili, Zijuan Liu and Thomas J. Abbruscato
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:46
  11. The growth of malignant tumors is influenced by their microenvironment. Glioblastoma, an aggressive primary brain tumor, may have cysts containing fluid that represents the tumor microenvironment. The aim of t...

    Authors: Daniel Dahlberg, Jutta Rummel, Sonia Distante, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Espen Mariussen, Helge Rootwelt, Øyvind Voie and Bjørnar Hassel
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:45
  12. Dysregulation of brain fluid homeostasis associates with brain pathologies in which fluid accumulation leads to elevated intracranial pressure. Surgical intervention remains standard care, since specific and e...

    Authors: Søren N. Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Jonathan H. Wardman, René Villadsen and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:44
  13. Cerebral infarction accounts for 85% of all stroke cases. Even in an era of rapid and effective recanalization using an intravascular approach, the majority of patients have poor functional outcomes. Thus, the...

    Authors: Kei Sato, Shinsuke Nakagawa, Yoichi Morofuji, Yuki Matsunaga, Takashi Fujimoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Masami Niwa, Fruzsina R. Walter, Judit P. Vigh, Ana Raquel Santa-Maria, Maria A. Deli and Takayuki Matsuo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:43
  14. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) induces epileptogenesis and neurotoxicity in the brain. As epileptic animal models have been reported to show elevated cerebral GAA levels, the processing mechanism of GAA in the brain i...

    Authors: Ryuta Jomura, Shin-ichi Akanuma, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Masanori Tachikawa and Ken-ichi Hosoya
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:42
  15. Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly submitted in vivo to hemodynamical forces derived from the blood circulation, including shear stress (SS). ECs are able to detect SS and consequently adapt their phenotyp...

    Authors: Nina Choublier, Meryam Taghi, Marie-Claude Menet, Morgane Le Gall, Johanna Bruce, Philippe Chafey, François Guillonneau, Amélie Moreau, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Samir Nakib, Didier Borderie, Haniaa Bouzinba-Segard, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Sandrine Bourdoulous and Xavier Declèves
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:41
  16. Mammalian Claudin-5 is the main endothelial tight junction component maintaining blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, while Claudin-1 and -3 seal the paracellular space of choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cel...

    Authors: Yanyu Li, Chunchun Wang, Liang Zhang, Bing Chen, Yuqian Mo and Jingjing Zhang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:40
  17. Congenital hydrocephalus occurs with some inheritable characteristics, but the mechanisms of its development remain poorly understood. Animal models provide the opportunity to identify potential genetic causes...

    Authors: Hanbing Xu, Masakazu Miyajima, Madoka Nakajima, Ikuko Ogino, Kaito Kawamura, Chihiro Akiba, Chihiro Kamohara, Koichiro Sakamoto, Kostadin Karagiozov, Eri Nakamura, Nobuhiro Tada, Hajime Arai and Akihide Kondo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:39
  18. Human blood brain barrier (BBB) models derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become an important tool for the discovery and preclinical evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) targeting c...

    Authors: Jez Huang, Ying Betty Li, Claudie Charlebois, Tina Nguyen, Ziying Liu, Darin Bloemberg, Ahmed Zafer, Ewa Baumann, Caroline Sodja, Sonia Leclerc, Gwen Fewell, Qing Liu, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Scott McComb, Danica B. Stanimirovic and Anna Jezierski
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:38
  19. Parkinson’s disease is mainly caused by aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain. Exchange of α-syn between the brain and peripheral tissues could have important pathophysiological and therapeutic impli...

    Authors: Parvez Alam, Mikkel R. Holst, Line Lauritsen, Janni Nielsen, Simone S. E. Nielsen, Poul Henning Jensen, Jonathan R. Brewer, Daniel E. Otzen and Morten S. Nielsen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:37
  20. White matter changes (WMC) on brain imaging can be classified as deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) or periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and are frequently seen in patients with idiopathic normal p...

    Authors: Carl Snöbohm, Filip Malmberg, Eva Freyhult, Kim Kultima, David Fällmar and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:35
  21. Oxidative stress is a shared pathology of neurodegenerative disease and brain injuries, and is derived from perturbations to normal cell processes by aging or environmental factors such as UV exposure and air ...

    Authors: Tracy D. Chung, Raleigh M. Linville, Zhaobin Guo, Robert Ye, Ria Jha, Gabrielle N. Grifno and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:33
  22. Blood biomarkers of neurological diseases are often employed to rule out or confirm the presence of significant intracranial or cerebrovascular pathology or for the differential diagnosis of conditions with si...

    Authors: Robert Murcko, Nicola Marchi, Damian Bailey and Damir Janigro
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:32
  23. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a close representation of pathophysiological changes occurring in the central nervous system (CNS); therefore, it has been employed in pathogenesis research and biomarker dev...

    Authors: Tsuneo Nakajima, Shuko Takeda, Yuki Ito, Akane Oyama, Yoichi Takami, Yasushi Takeya, Koichi Yamamoto, Ken Sugimoto, Hideo Shimizu, Munehisa Shimamura, Hiromi Rakugi and Ryuichi Morishita
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:31
  24. The response of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following a stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), has been studied extensively. The main components of this reaction are endothelial cells, pericytes, a...

    Authors: Peter Solár, Alemeh Zamani, Klaudia Lakatosová and Marek Joukal
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:29
  25. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonatal and adult populations. IVH not only causes immediate damage to surrounding structures by way of mass effect ...

    Authors: Katherine G. Holste, Fan Xia, Fenghui Ye, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:28
  26. Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A) is a transmembrane protein expressed in a variety of tissues; little is known about its function, particularly in the brain. ITM2A was found to be highly enriched in human bra...

    Authors: Céline Cegarra, C. Chaves, C. Déon, T. M. Do, B. Dumas, A. Frenzel, P. Kuhn, V. Roudieres, J. C. Guillemot and D. Lesuisse
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:25
  27. Recent studies have suggested alternative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance pathways for brain parenchymal metabolic waste products. One fundamental but relatively under-explored component of these pathways ...

    Authors: Kilian Hett, Colin D. McKnight, Jarrod J. Eisma, Jason Elenberger, Jennifer S. Lindsey, Ciaran M. Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:24
  28. Adenylyl cyclases (ADCYs), by generating second messenger cAMP, play important roles in various cellular processes. Their expression, regulation and functions in the CNS, however, remain largely unknown. In th...

    Authors: Karan Devasani and Yao Yao
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:23
  29. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are an accelerating global health problem. Nevertheless, the stronghold of the brain- the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents drug penetrance and dwindles effective treatments. ...

    Authors: Sara Hernando, Polyxeni Nikolakopoulou, Dimitrios Voulgaris, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Manoli Igartua and Anna Herland
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:22
  30. In sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition is believed to be a consequence of impaired Aβ clearance, but this relationship is not well established in living humans. CSF clearance,...

    Authors: Yi Li, Henry Rusinek, Tracy Butler, Lidia Glodzik, Elizabeth Pirraglia, John Babich, P. David Mozley, Sadek Nehmeh, Silky Pahlajani, Xiuyuan Wang, Emily B. Tanzi, Liangdong Zhou, Sara Strauss, Roxana O. Carare, Neil Theise, Nobuyuki Okamura…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:21
  31. Hydrocephalus (increased ventricular size due to CSF accumulation) is a common finding in human ciliopathies and in mouse models with genetic depletion of the multiciliated cell (MCC) cilia machinery. However,...

    Authors: Yuechuan Xue, Zachary Gursky, Brittany Monte, Sunil Koundal, Xiaodan Liu, Hedok Lee, Tatyana V. Michurina, Kennelia A. Mellanson, Lucy Zhao, Alice Nemajerova, Kristopher T. Kahle, Ken-Ichi Takemaru, Grigori Enikolopov, Natalia I. Peunova and Helene Benveniste
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:20
  32. Scientific conferences are vital communication events for scientists in academia, industry, and government agencies. In the brain barriers research field, several international conferences exist that allow res...

    Authors: Brianna M. Holder, Shaina E. Tolan, Kaleb K. Heinrich, Kaitlin C. Miller, Natalie Hudson, Geetika Nehra, Michelle E. Pizzo, Steffen E. Storck, William F. Elmquist, Britta Engelhardt, Irena Loryan, Michal Toborek, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz and Brandon J. Kim
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:19
  33. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a highly organized multicellular system localized in the brain, formed by neuronal, glial (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) and vascular (endothelial cells and peric...

    Authors: Parand Zarekiani, Henrique Nogueira Pinto, Elly M. Hol, Marianna Bugiani and Helga E. de Vries
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:18
  34. Hydrocephalus is a neurological disease with an incidence of 80–125 per 100,000 births in the United States. Neuropathology comprises ventriculomegaly, periventricular white matter (PVWM) alterations, inflamma...

    Authors: Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Sarah Zwick, Michael Talcott, Ayodamola Otun, Albert M. Isaacs, Diego M. Morales, David D. Limbrick Jr. and James P. McAllister II
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:17
  35. In severe acute pancreatitis (AP) the CNS is affected manifesting in neurological symptoms. Earlier research from our laboratory showed blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability elevation in a taurocholate-induce...

    Authors: Fruzsina R. Walter, András Harazin, Andrea E. Tóth, Szilvia Veszelka, Ana R. Santa-Maria, Lilla Barna, András Kincses, György Biczó, Zsolt Balla, Balázs Kui, József Maléth, László Cervenak, Vilmos Tubak, Ágnes Kittel, Zoltán Rakonczay Jr and Mária A. Deli
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:16
  36. Lumbar punctures are a common examination in the work-up of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers should therefore be available for use in selec...

    Authors: Madelene Braun, Caroline Bjurnemark, Woosung Seo, Eva Freyhult, Dag Nyholm, Valter Niemelä, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, David Fällmar, Kim Kultima and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:15
  37. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation in the brain has garnered considerable attention in recent times. In contrast, there have been fewer studies focused on the spine, despite the expected importance of CSF c...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Neftali Flores Rodriguez, Courtney Wright, Simon McMullan, Robert Lloyd, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:14
  38. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, heterogenous disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Currently, active disease is determined by physician confirm...

    Authors: Michael Mazzucco, William Mannheim, Samantha V. Shetty and Jennifer R. Linden
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:13
  39. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a core component of neurosurgical diagnostics. With the introduction of telemetric monitoring devices in the last years, ICP monitoring has become feasible in a broade...

    Authors: Isabel Martinez-Tejada, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marianne Juhler, Morten Andresen and Jens E. Wilhjelm
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:12
  40. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and the clinical features of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has been inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate CSF biomarkers reflecting ...

    Authors: Heikki Lukkarinen, Anna Jeppsson, Carsten Wikkelsö, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Radu Constantinescu, Anne M. Remes, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomas Rauramaa, Katarina Nägga, Ville Leinonen and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:11
  41. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain endothelial-like cells (iBECs) are a robust, scalable, and translatable model of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB). Prior works have shown that high ...

    Authors: Lindsey M. Williams, Takashi Fujimoto, Riley R. Weaver, Aric F. Logsdon, Kira M. Evitts, Jessica E. Young, William A. Banks and Michelle A. Erickson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:10
  42. The glymphatic hypothesis proposes a mechanism for extravascular transport into and out of the brain of hydrophilic solutes unable to cross the blood–brain barrier. It suggests that there is a circulation of f...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:9
  43. Intrathecal drug delivery has a significant role in pain management and central nervous system (CNS) disease therapeutics. A fluid-physics based tool to assist clinicians in choosing specific drug doses to the...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Khani, Goutham Kumar Reddy Burla, Lucas R. Sass, Ostin N. Arters, Tao Xing, Haiming Wu and Bryn A. Martin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:8
  44. C–C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) and its endogenous ligand, CCL5, participate in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, much remains unknown regarding CCL5/CCR1 signaling in blood–brain b...

    Authors: Jun Yan, Weilin Xu, Cameron Lenahan, Lei Huang, Umut Ocak, Jing Wen, Gaigai Li, Wei He, Chensheng Le, John H. Zhang, Ligen Mo and Jiping Tang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:7