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  1. The chemokine CCL2 is a critical mediator of neuroinflammation in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). CCL2 drives mononuclear cell in...

    Authors: Bandana Shrestha, Shujun Ge and Joel S Pachter

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2014 11:6

    Content type: Short paper

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  2. Cerebrospinal fluid absorption (CSF) at the cribriform plate is mediated by direct extracranial connections to the lymphatic system. Given the accessibility of these pharmacologically responsive vessels we hyp...

    Authors: Harold Kim, Sara A Moore and Miles G Johnston

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2014 11:4

    Content type: Short paper

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  3. Primary infection with or reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) can cause neurologic complications, which typically result in an intrathecal production of VZV-specific antibodies. Intrathecal antibodies...

    Authors: Carolin Otto, Jörg Hofmann, Carsten Finke, Mathias Zimmermann and Klemens Ruprecht

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2014 11:3

    Content type: Short paper

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  4. The neuroepithelia of the choroid plexus (CP) in the brain and the ciliary body (CB) of the eye have common embryological origins and share similar micro-structure and functions. The CP epithelium (CPE) and th...

    Authors: Sarah F Janssen, Theo GMF Gorgels, Jacoline B ten Brink, Nomdo M Jansonius and Arthur AB Bergen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2014 11:2

    Content type: Research

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  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cardiac gated phase contrast (PC) cine techniques have non-invasively shown the effect of the cardiac pulse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. Echo planar imaging (EPI) has...

    Authors: Shinya Yamada, Mitsue Miyazaki, Yuichi Yamashita, Cheng Ouyang, Masao Yui, Masao Nakahashi, Seiko Shimizu, Ikuo Aoki, Yukuo Morohoshi and James Gordon McComb

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:36

    Content type: Research

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  6. Mouse models are commonly used to study central nervous system disorders, in which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage may be disturbed. However, mouse CSF drainage into lymphatics has not been thoroughly chara...

    Authors: Emily Mathieu, Neeru Gupta, R Loch Macdonald, Jinglu Ai and Yeni H Yücel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:35

    Content type: Short paper

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  7. In hydrocephalus an imbalance between production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results in fluid accumulation, compression and stretching of the brain parenchyma. In addition, changes in CSF compo...

    Authors: Irum Naureen, Khawaja AIrfan Waheed, Ahsen W Rathore, Suresh Victor, Conor Mallucci, John R Goodden, Shahid N Chohan and Jaleel A Miyan

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:34

    Content type: Research

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  8. Reliable human in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) models suitable for high-throughput screening are urgently needed in early drug discovery and development for assessing the ability of promising bioactive compoun...

    Authors: Daniela E Eigenmann, Gongda Xue, Kwang S Kim, Ashlee V Moses, Matthias Hamburger and Mouhssin Oufir

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:33

    Content type: Research

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  9. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, an endocrine FGF protein mainly produced by the ileum, stimulates metabolic activity and alleviates obesity. FGF19 modulates metabolism after either intravenous or intracereb...

    Authors: Hung Hsuchou, Weihong Pan and Abba J Kastin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:32

    Content type: Research

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  10. Elevated uric acid (UA) is commonly associated with gout and it is also a known cardiovascular disease risk factor. In contrast to such deleterious effects, UA possesses neuroprotective properties in the brain...

    Authors: Naoko H Tomioka, Makiko Nakamura, Masaru Doshi, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Takayuki Morisaki and Makoto Hosoyamada

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:31

    Content type: Research

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  11. Chemokines and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum have been extensively studied in adults with neuroborreliosis (NB), whereas there are limited data about the pediatric population. In adults, T h...

    Authors: Zuzana Liba, Jana Kayserova and Vladimir Komarek

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:30

    Content type: Short paper

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  12. Organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) transporters at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which consists of retinal capillary endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithe...

    Authors: Shin-ichi Akanuma, Shiro Hirose, Masanori Tachikawa and Ken-ichi Hosoya

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:29

    Content type: Research

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  13. The human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, has been used extensively to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. Recently, we reported that cytokine-treatment induced loss of brain end...

    Authors: Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, David Kingsley Male, Chunfang Wang, Basil Sharrack, Dongsheng Wu and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:27

    Content type: Short paper

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  14. The choroid plexuses are the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the ventricular spaces of the central nervous system. The tight junctions linking adjacent cells of t...

    Authors: Ingrid Kratzer, Shane A Liddelow, Norman R Saunders, Kate M Dziegielewska, Nathalie Strazielle and Jean-Francois Ghersi-Egea

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:25

    Content type: Research

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  15. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB) as both free virus and within infected immune cells. Previous work showed that activation of the innate immune ...

    Authors: Shinya Dohgu and William A Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:23

    Content type: Research

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  16. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a syndrome of ventriculomegaly, gait impairment, cognitive decline and incontinence that occurs in an elderly population prone to many types of comorbidities....

    Authors: Jan Malm, Neill R Graff-Radford, Masatsune Ishikawa, Bo Kristensen, Ville Leinonen, Etsuro Mori, Brian K Owler, Mats Tullberg, Michael A Williams and Norman R Relkin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:22

    Content type: Review

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  17. Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and ...

    Authors: Yasuo Uchida, Masanori Tachikawa, Wataru Obuchi, Yutaro Hoshi, Yusuke Tomioka, Sumio Ohtsuki and Tetsuya Terasaki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor disorder that causes patients to experience overwhelming and distressing sensations in the legs compelling the patient to move their legs...

    Authors: Stephanie M Patton, Yong Won Cho, Thomas W Clardy, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley and James R Connor

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:20

    Content type: Research

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  19. Histamine is an ubiquitous inflammatory mediator of numerous physiological processes. Histamine and its receptors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We prospectively enrolled...

    Authors: Ulf Kallweit, Kosuke Aritake, Claudio L Bassetti, Stephan Blumenthal, Osamu Hayaishi, Michael Linnebank, Christian R Baumann and Yoshihiro Urade

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:19

    Content type: Short paper

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  20. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel mainly located in the ventricular ependymal cells (brain-CSF barrier), the sub-ependymal glia, glia limitans and in end-feet of astrocytes in at the blood–brain barrier (B...

    Authors: Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Juan M González-Toledo, Agustin Castañeyra-Ruiz, Héctor de Paz-Carmona, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo and Emilia M Carmona-Calero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:18

    Content type: Research

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  21. There is little knowledge concerning the content and the mechanisms of filling of arachnoid cysts. The aim of this study was to compare the protein content of arachnoid cysts and cerebrospinal fluid by quantit...

    Authors: Magnus Berle, AnnCathrine Kroksveen, Hilde Garberg, Mads Aarhus, ØysteinAriansen Haaland, Knut Wester, RuneJohan Ulvik, Christian Helland and Frode Berven

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:17

    Content type: Research

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  22. Since the first attempts in the 1970s to isolate cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (CECs) in order to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, the need for a human BBB model that closely mimics the in v...

    Authors: Babette Weksler, Ignacio A Romero and Pierre-Olivier Couraud

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:16

    Content type: Review

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  23. Cystatin C is a constitutively expressed and abundant cysteine protease inhibitor within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have reported a significant reduction in cystatin C concentration in the C...

    Authors: Meghan E Wilson, Imene Boumaza and Robert Bowser

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:15

    Content type: Research

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  24. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sodium concentration increases during migraine attacks, and both CSF and vitreous humor sodium increase in the rat migraine model. The Na,K-ATPase is a probable source of these sodium...

    Authors: Xianghong Arakaki, Paige McCleary, Matthew Techy, Jiarong Chiang, Linus Kuo, Alfred N Fonteh, Brian Armstrong, Dan Levy and Michael G Harrington

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:14

    Content type: Research

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  25. Aβ transport (flux) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease as well as to elimination of toxic amyloid from the brain by immunotherapy. Several ...

    Authors: Wandong Zhang, Huaqi Xiong, Debbie Callaghan, Hong Liu, Aimee Jones, Ke Pei, Dorothy Fatehi, Eric Brunette and Danica Stanimirovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:13

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Despite enormous advances in CNS research, CNS disorders remain the world’s leading cause of disability. This accounts for more hospitalizations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined, and ...

    Authors: Elizabeth CM de Lange

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:12

    Content type: Review

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  27. It is now recognized that the neuro-vascular unit (NVU) plays a key role in several neurological diseases including epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and the development of gliomas. Mos...

    Authors: Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Frédéric De Bock and Mireille Lerner-Natoli

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approac...

    Authors: Zoran B Redzic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:10

    Content type: Review

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  29. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a functional and structural barrier separating the intravascular and neuropil compartments of the brain. It characterizes the vascular bed and is essential for normal brain fun...

    Authors: Yoash Chassidim, Ronel Veksler, Svetlana Lublinsky, Gaby S Pell, Alon Friedman and Ilan Shelef

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:9

    Content type: Review

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  30. Knowledge of the molecular basis and transport function of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) is important for not only understanding human cerebral physiology, but also development of new central nervous sys...

    Authors: Keita Shimomura, Takashi Okura, Sayaka Kato, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Jean-Michel Schermann, Tetsuya Terasaki and Yoshiharu Deguchi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:8

    Content type: Research

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  31. The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically privileged site to which access for circulating immune cells is tightly controlled by the endothelial blood–brain barrier (BBB) located in CNS microvessel...

    Authors: Caroline Coisne, Ruth Lyck and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:7

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. The high-throughput brain slice method is a precise and robust technique for estimating the overall uptake of drugs into brain tissue through determination of the unbound volume of distribution in the brain (Vu,b...

    Authors: Irena Loryan, Markus Fridén and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:6

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. In multicellular organisms epithelial and endothelial cells form selective permeable interfaces between tissue compartments of different chemical compositions. Tight junctions which connect adjacent cells, con...

    Authors: Kathrin Benson, Sandra Cramer and Hans-Joachim Galla

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:5

    Content type: Review

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  34. In addition to possessing intracellular vesicles, eukaryotic cells also produce extracellular microvesicles, ranging from 50 to 1000 nm in diameter that are released or shed into the microenvironment under phy...

    Authors: Arsalan S Haqqani, Christie E Delaney, Tammy-Lynn Tremblay, Caroline Sodja, Jagdeep K Sandhu and Danica B Stanimirovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:4

    Content type: Research

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  35. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a selective endothelial interface that controls trafficking between the bloodstream and brain interstitial space. During development, the BBB arises as a result of complex mult...

    Authors: Ethan S Lippmann, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Sean P Palecek and Eric V Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:2

    Content type: Review

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  36. A critical point during the course of central nervous system infection is the influx of leukocytes from the blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (...

    Authors: Tobias Tenenbaum, Ulrike Steinmann, Corinna Friedrich, Jürgen Berger, Christian Schwerk and Horst Schroten

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The Blood–brain barrier (BBB), present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral home...

    Authors: Anny-Claude Luissint, Cédric Artus, Fabienne Glacial, Kayathiri Ganeshamoorthy and Pierre-Olivier Couraud

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:23

    Content type: Review

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  38. Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies that are not yet fully understood. Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of ...

    Authors: Ruth E Swiderski, Khristofor Agassandian, Jean L Ross, Kevin Bugge, Martin D Cassell and Charles Yeaman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:22

    Content type: Research

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  39. A new adjustable valve, the Codman CertasTM valve for treatment of hydrocephalus was introduced into clinical practice in January 2011. It has 8 different settings with an opening pressure varying from 36 to over...

    Authors: Sara Watt, Niels Agerlin and Bertil Romner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:21

    Content type: Short paper

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  40. Gait abnormalities in the elderly, characterized by short steps and frozen gait, can be caused by several diseases, including idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). We a...

    Authors: Kohei Marumoto, Tetsuo Koyama, Masashi Hosomi, Norihiko Kodama, Hiroji Miyake and Kazuhisa Domen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:20

    Content type: Research

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  41. The motor and cognitive deficits observed in hydrocephalus are thought to be due to axonal damage within the periventricular white matter. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between ven...

    Authors: Funmilayo Eniola Olopade, Matthew Temitayo Shokunbi and Anna-Leena Sirén

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:19

    Content type: Research

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  42. The outcome of pediatric hydrocephalus, including surgical complications, neurological sequelae and academic achievement, has been the matter of many studies. However, much uncertainty remains, regarding the v...

    Authors: Matthieu Vinchon, Harold Rekate and Abhaya V Kulkarni

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:18

    Content type: Review

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  43. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a protein of the innate immune response is attracting increasing clinical interest, in particularly in relation to its deficiency. Due to its involvement in brain diseases, identif...

    Authors: Hansotto Reiber, Barbara Padilla-Docal, Jens Christian Jensenius and Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:17

    Content type: Research

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