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Table 3 Statistical interference for the pair differences of CSE vs. SENSE and SENSE2 vs. SENSE

From: Compressed-sensing accelerated 4D flow MRI of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

Flow parameter Acceleration-method Mean pair difference Lower CI Upper CI p value Sign
Average net flow (ml/s) SENSE2 0.08 − 0.71 0.87 0.84  
CSE4 0.31 − 0.05 0.67 0.10  
CSE6 0.82 0.37 1.27 0.002 **
CSE8 1.13 0.82 1.44 5.59∙10–7 ***
CSE10 0.82 0.15 1.49 0.02 *
Peak velocity (cm/s) SENSE − 0.32 − 1.24 0.60 0.49  
CSE4 0.31 − 0.22 0.85 0.26  
CSE6 0.41 − 1.18 1.00 0.18  
CSE8 0.40 − 0.21 1.00 0.20  
CSE10 − 0.23 − 0.72 0.26 0.36  
Forward flow (ml/s) SENSE2 − 0.003 − 0.84 0.84 0.99  
CSE4 0.78 0.29 1.28 0.01 **
CSE6 0.96 0.42 1.50 0.002 **
CSE8 0.90 0.33 1.46 0.005 **
CSE10 0.31 − 0.47 1.09 0.44  
Backward flow (ml/s) SENSE2 − 0.21 − 1.22 0.79 0.67  
CSE4 0.33 − 0.11 0.77 0.15  
CSE6 0.65 0.02 1.28 0.05  
CSE8 0.87 0.32 1.42 0.01 **
CSE10 0.57 − 0.19 1.33 0.15  
  1. Lower CI lower confidence interval, Upper CI upper confidence interval, p value p value for the test whether mean pair difference is equal to 0 (null hypothesis) or differs from 0 (alternative)
  2. Interference for mean pair difference for SENSE–SENSE2 and SENSE–CSE, based on mixed model fits
  3. Stars indicate that the mean pair difference is significantly different from 0 (* 0.05 > p > 0.01; ** 0.01 > p > 0.001; *** 0.001 > p)