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Table 1 Modeling cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in culture. Summary of current in vitro models of CVD that include the modeled in vitro condition, blood brain barrier (BBB) pathology and utilized in vitro BBB model

From: Modeling blood–brain barrier pathology in cerebrovascular disease in vitro: current and future paradigms

CVD In vitro model condition BBB pathology Utilized in vitro BBB model Refs.
Stroke
 Ischemic OGD (1–5 h)
OGD + Reperfusion (reoxygenation + normal glucose level)
(1–5 h + 1–96 h)
Chemical ischemia (rotenone, antimycin and sodium azide)
Enzymatic (GOX, GOX/CAT and 2-deoxyglucose)
Hyperpermeability
Cytotoxicity
Inflammation
BBB recovery
Angiogenesis
BEC monolayer
2-D model
DIV-BBB
3-D model
[78, 127, 148, 160, 162, 165]
[164, 166, 167, 182]
[126]
[135]
[156,157,158]
 Hemorrhagic hemin/hemoglobin +/OGD
thrombin ± OGD
Hyperpermeability
Cytotoxicity
Inflammation
BEC monolayer
2-D model
[187, 189, 207,208,209,210,211]
[186]
Vascular dementia
 CADASIL Replicative senescence
H2O2 (50 μM)
modification of telomerase
DNA damage
NOTCH3 mutation
Senescence
Hyperpermeability
Inflammation
BEC monolayer
hiPSC
[194, 201, 202]
[206]
Vascular malformation
 CCM 1-3 Gene silencing Hyperpermeability signaling BEC monolayer [59, 95]
  1. BEC brain endothelial cell, CAT catalase, CCM cerebral cavernous malformation, GOX glucose oxidase, hiPSC human induced pluripotent stem cell, OGD oxygen glucose deprivation