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Table 3 Table summarizing changes of the CP in neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases

From: Choroid plexus and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in disease

CategoryDisorderChoroidal epithelial cellsJunctionsImmune cellsTransportersOthers
Neurodegenerative diseasesAlzheimer’s↑ Lipofuscin vacuoles
[301]
↓ Claudin-5, Claudin-1, Occludin, ZO-1 expression
[233]
 ↓ AQP 1 expression
[252]
Stromal fibrosis
Thickening of blood vessel
[249]
↓ Mitochondrial activity
↑ Oxidative stress
[246]
  ↓ Megalin expression
[239]
Basement membrane thickening
[249]
↑ IL-1, IL-6, TNFα secretion
MMP-3 expression
[233]
  ↑ LRP1 and PgP expression
[240]
↓ CSF production
[248]
CP epithelial cuboidal shape changed
↓ Nucleus size
[233]
  ↓ TTR expression
[244]
↑ Concentration of IgG
[235]
↑ IFN-I signaling
↓ IFN-γ signaling
[236]
    
CP epithelial cell atrophy
[241]
    
Parkinson’s   Modulation of transporters of alpha-synuclein
[257]
 
Huntington’s ↓ Claudin-5 expression
[258]
   
Autoimmune
diseases
Multiple sclerosis (MS)↑ Cadherin expression
[258]
↑ miRNA-155, miRNA-326 expression resulting in loss of TJs
[268, 269]
↑ Lymphocytes in the vessels and stroma followed by increased IgG antibodies
[260]
 ↑ C3d, C9neo expression within the pericapillary space in NMO
[271]
↑ CCR6 expression on Th-17 cells
[265]
    
↑ CX3CL1 expression helping Entry of lymphocytes
[267]
    
Swelling of CP
[270]
    
↑ VCAM-1 and ICAM-1expression following increase in IFN-γ production
[262]
    
↑ CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 expression upon peripheral immune stimuli
[266]
    
ALS  Leukocyte trafficking through CP requires IFN-y signaling
[272]