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Fig. 5 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 5

From: Spinal CSF flow in response to forced thoracic and abdominal respiration

Fig. 5

CSF net volumes during forced respiration. Mean CSF flow volumes averaged across 18 subjects and 4 cycles of forced thoracic (red) and abdominal (blue) Top: inspiration and Middle: expiration. Positive inspiratory CSF flow volumes indicate upward fluid movement which was more pronounced during abdominal breathing. Negative downward flow volumes during forced expiration varied, but showed a more uniform behavior during abdominal respiration. The large standard deviations during forced thoracic expiration indicate pronounced inter-individual differences. Bottom: CSF net volumes point upwards at all locations, again more distinct during abdominal breathing. IN inspiration, EX expiration, NET CSF net volumes

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