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Table 1 Blood–brain barrier and blood–retinal barrier disruption to 99mTc-albumin

From: Disruption of the hippocampal and hypothalamic blood–brain barrier in a diet-induced obese model of type II diabetes: prevention and treatment by the mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, topiramate

Region Prevention Efficacy
LF LF TPM HF HF TPM LF LF TPM HF HF TPM
Whole brain 1.102 ± 0.495 1.599 ± 1.160 3.174 ± 2.237a 0.667 ± 0.413b 0.883 ± 0.452 0.927 ± 0.473 1.672 ± 0.719a 0.534 ± 0.096b
Retina 18.20 ± 7.654 21.37 ± 8.186 38.46 ± 20.53a 29.98 ± 21.77a 19.27 ± 7.943 31.13 ± 8.985 36.40 ± 11.65a 29.62 ± 8.061
Vitreous humor 3.941 ± 1.141 3.591 ± 1.513 6.062 ± 1.613a 6.277 ± 2.636a 5.398 ± 2.516 8.791 ± 4.617 7.917 ± 5.659 6.694 ± 3.447
Olfactory bulb 2.110 ± 1.677 1.701 ± 0.789 2.267 ± 1.871 2.696 ± 1.483 1.697 ± 0.392 1.326 ± 0.653 2.383 ± 1.321 1.486 ± 0.547
Striatum 1.892 ± 0.995 1.746 ± 1.905 1.840 ± 1.167 1.976 ± 1.669 0.795 ± 0.770 0.681 ± 0.512 0.823 ± 0.776 0.412 ± 0.273
Frontal cortex 0.861 ± 0.815 1.081 ± 0.799 2.079 ± 1.736 0.949 ± 0.589 0.752 ± 0.344 0.773 ± 0.356 1.241 ± 0.765 0.522 ± 0.090b
Hypothalamus 1.528 ± 0.411 2.506 ± 2.400 16.41 ± 13.15a 3.123 ± 2.274b 0.815 ± 1.025 0.659 ± 0.667 0.223 ± 0.397 0.579 ± 0.436
Hippocampus 0.630 ± 0.538 2.759 ± 2.324 3.603 ± 3.855 0.984 ± 0.765 0.598 ± 0.458 1.094 ± 0.723 1.742 ± 1.112a 0.339 ± 0.273b
Thalamus 1.196 ± 0.640 1.951 ± 1.424 3.094 ± 3.046 1.273 ± 1.366 0.594 ± 0.510 0.710 ± 0.316 1.328 ± 1.258 0.367 ± 0.219
Parietal cortex 1.119 ± 0.665 1.615 ± 1.486 2.576 ± 2.362 0.871 ± 0.802 0.723 ± 0.412 0.745 ± 0.411 1.359 ± 1.050 0.371 ± 0.125b
Occipital cortex 1.314 ± 0.841 1.982 ± 1.370 2.817 ± 2.521 0.655 ± 0.406 1.070 ± 0.530 0.669 ± 0.547 1.103 ± 0.720 0.406 ± 0.233b
Cerebellum 0.738 ± 0.430 1.087 ± 1.029 2.851 ± 2.483a 0.990 ± 1.150 1.072 ± 0.742 0.899 ± 0.470 0.908 ± 0.458 0.752 ± 0.495
Midbrain 0.947 ± 0.825 1.908 ± 0.943 2.994 ± 2.301 1.936 ± 2.206 0.515 ± 0.288 0.799 ± 0.482 1.260 ± 0.791 0.289 ± 0.220b
Pons-medulla 1.472 ± 0.654 2.191 ± 1.267 3.057 ± 1.969 2.548 ± 1.490 1.361 ± 0.670 1.176 ± 0.420 1.671 ± 0.800 1.598 ± 2.272
  1. 99mTc-albumin was used to assess permeability after TPM treatment
  2. Units, µL/g. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. Significance was determined by a one-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls post-test
  3. LF low-fat diet + saline group, LF TPM low-fat diet + topiramate group, HF high-fat diet + saline group, HF TPM high-fat diet + topiramate group
  4. aSignificance in comparison to LF control
  5. bSignificance in comparison to HF