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Volume 12 Supplement 1

Abstracts from Hydrocephalus 2015

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A generalization of the Marmarou model


The Marmarou model has fundamentally influenced the development of mathematical pressure-volume models of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. It is a non-linear ordinary differential equation which is solvable in closed-form. The solution provides valuable analytical insights into the nature of the circulatory dynamics of CSF. It would be useful to generalize the Marmarou model to a broader class of polynomials to expand its scope to other CSF and Hydrocephalus phenomena.


The Marmarou model relating the temporal evolution of ICP in pressure-volume studies to infusions incorporates observed fluctuations in the ICP through a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of second order whose structure is based on physical analogies between CSF dynamics and an electrical circuit. This ODE is extended from its quadratic structure to a general polynomial of order ‘n’.


An algorithm to solve the general polynomial ODE is developed. The solution to the original Marmarou model emerges from this algorithm as a special case. The solution for the general polynomial ODE is obtained from the algorithm which is shown to be easily implementable.


The general polynomial Marmarou model expands the domain of applicability of the original one, thereby providing insights into a broader class of CSF phenomena. From a clinical perspective, these insights have implications for risk management of the patient for a large class of CSF and Hydrocephalus phenomena.

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Correspondence to Kaylan Raman.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Raman, K. A generalization of the Marmarou model. Fluids Barriers CNS 12 (Suppl 1), P44 (2015).

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