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Volume 12 Supplement 1

Abstracts from Hydrocephalus 2015

  • Oral presentation
  • Open Access

Physiological variability in CSF motion using magnetic resonance time spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) - real time imaging

Fluids and Barriers of the CNS201512 (Suppl 1) :O27

  • Published:


  • Steady State Free Precession
  • Motion Variability
  • Radiofrequency Pulse
  • Balance Steady State Free Precession
  • Physiological Variability


The ideal tracer for studying CSF dynamics is CSF itself. In time spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP), MR radiofrequency pulses convert specific volumes of CSF into an endogenous tracer. CSF dynamics can then be observed under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. A gate-free and fast image acquisition technique like Time-SLIP is necessary to visualize natural CSF motion, whose behavior varies with cardiac pulsation and respiration.


To study physiological variability in CSF motion using the MRI Time-SILP method.


A real-time Time-SLIP balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequence was used on 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Acquisition time for each image was approximately 130msec. Serial images were obtained one to five seconds after the labeling pulse. Pulsatile CSF motions over four to five cardiac strokes were analyzed.


Considerable pulsatile CSF motion variability was observed in normal physiological brains as well as pathophysiological (hydrocephalus) brains.


Real-time MR imaging is necessary to investigate natural pulsatile CSF motion. Averaging over multiple pulsatile CSF motions potentially wipes out natural physiological variability in CSF motion.

Authors’ Affiliations

Toshiba Rinkan Hospital, Japan


  1. Yamada S, Tsuchiya K, Bradley WG, Law M, Winkler ML, Borzage MT, Miyazaki M, Kelly EJ, McComb JG: Current and Emerging MR Imaging Techniques for the Diagnosis and Management of CSF Flow Disorders: A Review of Phase-Contrast and Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014Google Scholar


© Yamada 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.