Volume 4 Supplement 1

51st Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida

Open Access

Continence and dryness in spina bifida patients at school age

  • Pieter Dik1Email author,
  • Sarah van Loopik1,
  • Aart Klijn1,
  • Rafal Chrzan1 and
  • Tom de Jong1
Cerebrospinal Fluid Research20074(Suppl 1):S41


Published: 20 December 2007


To analyse urinary continence and urodynamics in spina bifida aperta (SBA) and occulta (SBO) patients at school age.

Materials and methods

Our policy in SB patients is to offer dryness before school age. Out of 176 patients 141 were evaluated at school age: 106 with SB aperta and 35 with SB occulta.

All patients were treated with clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC), antimuscarinic agents, and antibiotic chemoprophylaxis from birth onwards in order to prevent obstructive uropathy and to preserve renal function. To secure low intra-vesical pressure, antimuscarinic agents were administered (oxybutynin, sometimes replaced by tolterodine if necessary). If conservative management failed a sling and (auto) augmentation was offered. Our definition of 'continent' is when a patient can retain urine and can void normally. Our definition of 'dry' is when a patient is on catheterisation without requiring pads.


SBO patients: 51% were continent, 29% were dry on CIC.

SBA patients: 8% were continent, 46% were dry on CIC. 45% of (partially) incontinent children would need a continence improving operation in the future.


SBO patients have, compared to patients with SBA, a better chance for continence and normal voiding. With adequate therapy most of the patients can be dry at school age. The majority of incontinence at school age is caused by parental refusal of surgical intervention. A minority of incontinence is caused by surgical failure.

Authors’ Affiliations

Dept. Pediatric Urology UMC Utrecht


© Dik et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.