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  1. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a core component of neurosurgical diagnostics. With the introduction of telemetric monitoring devices in the last years, ICP monitoring has become feasible in a broade...

    Authors: Isabel Martinez-Tejada, Casper Schwartz Riedel, Marianne Juhler, Morten Andresen and Jens E. Wilhjelm
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:12
  2. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and the clinical features of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has been inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate CSF biomarkers reflecting ...

    Authors: Heikki Lukkarinen, Anna Jeppsson, Carsten Wikkelsö, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Radu Constantinescu, Anne M. Remes, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomas Rauramaa, Katarina Nägga, Ville Leinonen and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:11
  3. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain endothelial-like cells (iBECs) are a robust, scalable, and translatable model of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB). Prior works have shown that high ...

    Authors: Lindsey M. Williams, Takashi Fujimoto, Riley R. Weaver, Aric F. Logsdon, Kira M. Evitts, Jessica E. Young, William A. Banks and Michelle A. Erickson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:10
  4. The glymphatic hypothesis proposes a mechanism for extravascular transport into and out of the brain of hydrophilic solutes unable to cross the blood–brain barrier. It suggests that there is a circulation of f...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:9
  5. Intrathecal drug delivery has a significant role in pain management and central nervous system (CNS) disease therapeutics. A fluid-physics based tool to assist clinicians in choosing specific drug doses to the...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Khani, Goutham Kumar Reddy Burla, Lucas R. Sass, Ostin N. Arters, Tao Xing, Haiming Wu and Bryn A. Martin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:8
  6. C–C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) and its endogenous ligand, CCL5, participate in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, much remains unknown regarding CCL5/CCR1 signaling in blood–brain b...

    Authors: Jun Yan, Weilin Xu, Cameron Lenahan, Lei Huang, Umut Ocak, Jing Wen, Gaigai Li, Wei He, Chensheng Le, John H. Zhang, Ligen Mo and Jiping Tang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:7
  7. Ways to prevent disease-induced vascular modifications that accelerate brain damage remain largely elusive. Improved understanding of perivascular cell signalling could provide unparalleled insight as these ce...

    Authors: Julia Baumann, Chih-Chieh Tsao, Shalmali Patkar, Sheng-Fu Huang, Simona Francia, Synnøve Norvoll Magnussen, Max Gassmann, Johannes Vogel, Christina Köster-Hegmann and Omolara O. Ogunshola
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:6
  8. Altered cerebrovascular function and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can contribute to chronic neuropathology and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TBI due to a ...

    Authors: Alexander T. Clark, Eric E. Abrahamson, Matthew M. Harper and Milos D. Ikonomovic
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:5
  9. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome measure timed up and go (TUG) in a large, nationwide cohort of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) pre- and post-operatively. Further...

    Authors: Nina Sundström, Johanna Rydja, Johan Virhammar, Lena Kollén, Fredrik Lundin and Mats Tullberg
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:4
  10. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) is critically important to the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier prevents the safe transmission of beneficial drugs ...

    Authors: Yi Kung, Kuan-Yu Chen, Wei-Hao Liao, Yi-Hua Hsu, Chueh-Hung Wu, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Abel P.-H. Huang and Wen-Shiang Chen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:3
  11. The treatment of hydrocephalus has been a topic of intense research ever since the first clinically successful use of a valved cerebrospinal fluid shunt 72 years ago. While ample studies elucidating different ...

    Authors: Anthony Podgoršak, Nina Eva Trimmel, Markus Florian Oertel, Sara Qvarlander, Margarete Arras, Anders Eklund, Miriam Weisskopf and Marianne Schmid Daners
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:2
  12. Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) experience hypoxic conditions during early brain development. The newly formed capillaries are tight and functional before astrocytes and pericytes join the capillarie...

    Authors: Burak Ozgür, Hans Christian Cederberg Helms, Erica Tornabene and Birger Brodin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:1
  13. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) have a complex pathophysiology involving inflammatory response, ventricular zone and cell–cell junction disruption, and choroid-plexus...

    Authors: Ayodamola Otun, Diego M. Morales, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Seth Goldberg, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Yan Yan, Albert M. Isaacs, Jennifer M. Strahle, James P. McAllister II and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:62
  14. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation between the brain and spinal canal, as part of the glymphatic system, provides homeostatic support to brain functions and waste clearance. Recently, it has been observed t...

    Authors: Marco Muccio, David Chu, Lawrence Minkoff, Neeraj Kulkarni, Brianna Damadian, Raymond V. Damadian and Yulin Ge
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:61
  15. In ischemic stroke, the function of the cerebral vasculature is impaired. This vascular structure is formed by the so-called neurovascular unit (NVU). A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in NVU d...

    Authors: Nienke R. Wevers, Arya Lekshmi Nair, Tania M. Fowke, Maria Pontier, Dhanesh G. Kasi, Xandor M. Spijkers, Charlie Hallard, Gwenaëlle Rabussier, Remko van Vught, Paul Vulto, Helga E. de Vries and Henriëtte L. Lanz
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:59
  16. Little is known about the extent of drug entry into developing brain, when administered to pregnant and lactating women. Lithium is commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder. Here we studied transfer of lithium...

    Authors: Shene Yi-Shiuan Chiou, Kai Kysenius, Yifan Huang, Mark David Habgood, Liam M. Koehn, Fiona Qiu, Peter J. Crouch, Swati Varshney, Katherine Ganio, Katarzyna Magdalena Dziegielewska and Norman Ruthven Saunders
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:57
  17. Understanding molecular transport in the brain is critical to care and prevention of neurological disease and injury. A key question is whether transport occurs primarily by diffusion, or also by convection or...

    Authors: Lori A. Ray, Martin Pike, Matthew Simon, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:55
  18. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurological condition of unresolved etiology characterized by a clinical triad of symptoms; gait disturbances, urinary incontinence,...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Nina Rostgaard, Søren Norge Andreassen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Marianne Juhler, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:54
  19. The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) can cause meningitis in humans, but the host signalling pathways manipulated by Nm during central nervous system (CNS) entry are not completely understood.

    Authors: Rosanna Herold, René Scholtysik, Selina Moroniak, Christel Weiss, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten and Christian Schwerk
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:53
  20. Contemporary biomarker collection techniques in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have to date offered only modest clinical insights into neurologic diseases such as epilepsy and glioma. Conversely, the collection...

    Authors: Luke A. Stangler, Abbas Kouzani, Kevin E. Bennet, Ludovic Dumee, Michael Berk, Gregory A. Worrell, Steven Steele, Terence C. Burns and Charles L. Howe
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:52
  21. Rehabilitation in iNPH is suggested to be an important factor to improve patients’ functions but there are lack of clinical trials evaluating the effect of rehabilitation interventions after shunt surgery in i...

    Authors: Johanna Rydja, Lena Kollén, Per Hellström, Katarina Owen, Åsa Lundgren Nilsson, Carsten Wikkelsø, Mats Tullberg and Fredrik Lundin
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:51
  22. Chronic mild hypoxia (CMH, 8% O2) stimulates robust vascular remodelling in the brain, but it also triggers transient vascular disruption. This raises the fundamental question: is the vascular leak an unwanted si...

    Authors: Sebok K. Halder and Richard Milner
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:50
  23. Many animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus; most of these have been rodent models whose lissencephalic cerebral cortex may not respond to ventriculomegaly in the same way a...

    Authors: James P. McAllister II, Michael R. Talcott, Albert M. Isaacs, Sarah H. Zwick, Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Alexis L. Hartman, Ryan N. Dilger, Stephen A. Fleming, Rebecca K. Golden, Diego M. Morales, Carolyn A. Harris and David D. Limbrick Jr
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:49
  24. Repetitive head trauma has been associated with the accumulation of tau species in the brain. Our prior work showed brain vascular mural cells contribute to tau processing in the brain, and that these cells pr...

    Authors: Maxwell Eisenbaum, Andrew Pearson, Arissa Gratkowski, Benoit Mouzon, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford, Joseph Ojo and Corbin Bachmeier
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:48
  25. Disruption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange in the spinal cord is likely to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases that involve abnormal fluid accumulation, including...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley and Sarah J. Hemley
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:47
  26. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid that occupies the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces within and around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is a dynamic signaling milieu that transports nutrien...

    Authors: Vania Sepúlveda, Felipe Maurelia, Maryori González, Jaime Aguayo and Teresa Caprile
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:45
  27. Destruction of blood–brain barrier (BBB) ​​is one of the main mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Frizzled-7 is a key protein expressed on the surface of endothelial ...

    Authors: Wei He, Qin Lu, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Xin Hu, John H. Zhang, Haibin Dai and Jiping Tang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:44
  28. The pathways that control protein transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) remain poorly characterized. Despite great advances in recapitulating the human BBB in vitro, current models are not suitable fo...

    Authors: Claire Simonneau, Martina Duschmalé, Alina Gavrilov, Nathalie Brandenberg, Sylke Hoehnel, Camilla Ceroni, Evodie Lassalle, Elena Kassianidou, Hendrik Knoetgen, Jens Niewoehner and Roberto Villaseñor
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:43
  29. C-X-C chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is frequently elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a variety of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, has been detected in meningeal B cell aggregates in br...

    Authors: Christine Harrer, Ferdinand Otto, Georg Pilz, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Hitzl, Peter Wipfler and Andrea Harrer
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:40
  30. Thrombin has been implicated in playing a role in hydrocephalus development following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). However, the mechanisms underlying the sex differences to the detrimental effects of thr...

    Authors: Kang Peng, Sravanthi Koduri, Fan Xia, Feng Gao, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:38
  31. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains unclear. Little is known about the pre-symptomatic stage. This study aimed to investigate the association of neuropsychological data with...

    Authors: Doortje C. Engel, Lukas Pirpamer, Edith Hofer, Reinhold Schmidt and Cornelia Brendle
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:37
  32. In vitro models based on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are among the most versatile tools in blood–brain barrier research for testing drug penetration into the brain and how this is affected by eff...

    Authors: Birthe Gericke, Saskia Borsdorf, Inka Wienböker, Andreas Noack, Sandra Noack and Wolfgang Löscher
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:36
  33. Vascular dementia (VaD) and atypical parkinsonism often present with symptoms that can resemble idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and enlarged cerebral ventricles, and can be challenging differen...

    Authors: David Fällmar, Oliver Andersson, Lena Kilander, Malin Löwenmark, Dag Nyholm and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:35
  34. Genetic variation in a population has an influence on the manifestation of monogenic as well as multifactorial disorders, with the underlying genetic contribution dependent on several interacting variants. Com...

    Authors: Johanna Schaffenrath, Sheng-Fu Huang, Tania Wyss, Mauro Delorenzi and Annika Keller
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:34
  35. Implantation of ventricular catheters (VCs) to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard approach to treat hydrocephalus. VCs fail frequently due to tissue obstructing the lumen via the drainage holes. Mec...

    Authors: Prashant Hariharan, Jeffrey Sondheimer, Alexandra Petroj, Jacob Gluski, Andrew Jea, William E. Whitehead, Sandeep Sood, Steven D. Ham, Brandon G. Rocque, Neena I. Marupudi, James P. McAllister II, David Limbrick, Marc R. Del Bigio and Carolyn A. Harris
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:33
  36. SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus (CoV), is known to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a number of non-respiratory complications, particularly in older male patients with prior health conditions, such as ...

    Authors: Conor McQuaid, Molly Brady and Rashid Deane
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:32
  37. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrated colorless brain fluid that circulates within brain spaces like the ventricular cavities, subarachnoid space, and the spine. Its continuous flow serves many prima...

    Authors: Vijay Kumar, Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Ravi Shankar Goutam, Soochul Park and Jaebong Kim
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:31
  38. Periventricular extracellular oedema, myelin damage, inflammation, and glial reactions are common neuropathological events that occur in the brain in congenital hydrocephalus. The periventricular white matter ...

    Authors: Betsaida Ojeda-Pérez, José A. Campos-Sandoval, María García-Bonilla, Casimiro Cárdenas-García, Patricia Páez-González and Antonio J. Jiménez
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:30
  39. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are one of the hallmarks of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), but the pathological mechanisms underlying WMHs remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that extracellular ...

    Authors: Xinfeng Yu, Xinzhen Yin, Hui Hong, Shuyue Wang, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Fan Zhang, Ofer Pasternak, Ruiting Zhang, Linglin Yang, Min Lou, Minming Zhang and Peiyu Huang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:29
  40. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-borne agents and potentially harmful xenobiotics. Our group’s previous data has shown that tobacco ...

    Authors: Hossam Kadry, Behnam Noorani, Ulrich Bickel, Thomas J. Abbruscato and Luca Cucullo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:28
  41. The entry of blood-borne molecules into the brain is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Various physical, transport and immune properties tightly regulate molecule movement between the blood and the ...

    Authors: Steffen E. Storck, Magdalena Kurtyka and Claus U. Pietrzik
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:27
  42. Transferrin receptor (TfR1) mediated enhanced brain delivery of antibodies have been studied extensively in preclinical settings. However, the brain pharmacokinetics, i.e. brain entry, distribution and elimina...

    Authors: Rebecca Faresjö, Gillian Bonvicini, Xiaotian T. Fang, Ximena Aguilar, Dag Sehlin and Stina Syvänen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:26
  43. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis (LIAS) are two forms of chronic adult hydrocephalus of different aetiology. We analysed overnight intracranial pres...

    Authors: Lauren M. Green, Thomas Wallis, Martin U. Schuhmann and Matthias Jaeger
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2021 18:25