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  1. Organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) transporters at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which consists of retinal capillary endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithe...

    Authors: Shin-ichi Akanuma, Shiro Hirose, Masanori Tachikawa and Ken-ichi Hosoya

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:29

    Content type: Research

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  2. The human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, has been used extensively to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. Recently, we reported that cytokine-treatment induced loss of brain end...

    Authors: Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, David Kingsley Male, Chunfang Wang, Basil Sharrack, Dongsheng Wu and Ignacio Andres Romero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:27

    Content type: Short paper

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  3. The choroid plexuses are the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the ventricular spaces of the central nervous system. The tight junctions linking adjacent cells of t...

    Authors: Ingrid Kratzer, Shane A Liddelow, Norman R Saunders, Kate M Dziegielewska, Nathalie Strazielle and Jean-Francois Ghersi-Egea

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:25

    Content type: Research

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  4. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB) as both free virus and within infected immune cells. Previous work showed that activation of the innate immune ...

    Authors: Shinya Dohgu and William A Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:23

    Content type: Research

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  5. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a syndrome of ventriculomegaly, gait impairment, cognitive decline and incontinence that occurs in an elderly population prone to many types of comorbidities....

    Authors: Jan Malm, Neill R Graff-Radford, Masatsune Ishikawa, Bo Kristensen, Ville Leinonen, Etsuro Mori, Brian K Owler, Mats Tullberg, Michael A Williams and Norman R Relkin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:22

    Content type: Review

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  6. Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and ...

    Authors: Yasuo Uchida, Masanori Tachikawa, Wataru Obuchi, Yutaro Hoshi, Yusuke Tomioka, Sumio Ohtsuki and Tetsuya Terasaki

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor disorder that causes patients to experience overwhelming and distressing sensations in the legs compelling the patient to move their legs...

    Authors: Stephanie M Patton, Yong Won Cho, Thomas W Clardy, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley and James R Connor

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:20

    Content type: Research

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  8. Histamine is an ubiquitous inflammatory mediator of numerous physiological processes. Histamine and its receptors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We prospectively enrolled...

    Authors: Ulf Kallweit, Kosuke Aritake, Claudio L Bassetti, Stephan Blumenthal, Osamu Hayaishi, Michael Linnebank, Christian R Baumann and Yoshihiro Urade

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:19

    Content type: Short paper

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  9. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel mainly located in the ventricular ependymal cells (brain-CSF barrier), the sub-ependymal glia, glia limitans and in end-feet of astrocytes in at the blood–brain barrier (B...

    Authors: Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Juan M González-Toledo, Agustin Castañeyra-Ruiz, Héctor de Paz-Carmona, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo and Emilia M Carmona-Calero

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:18

    Content type: Research

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  10. There is little knowledge concerning the content and the mechanisms of filling of arachnoid cysts. The aim of this study was to compare the protein content of arachnoid cysts and cerebrospinal fluid by quantit...

    Authors: Magnus Berle, AnnCathrine Kroksveen, Hilde Garberg, Mads Aarhus, ØysteinAriansen Haaland, Knut Wester, RuneJohan Ulvik, Christian Helland and Frode Berven

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:17

    Content type: Research

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  11. Since the first attempts in the 1970s to isolate cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (CECs) in order to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, the need for a human BBB model that closely mimics the in v...

    Authors: Babette Weksler, Ignacio A Romero and Pierre-Olivier Couraud

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:16

    Content type: Review

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  12. Cystatin C is a constitutively expressed and abundant cysteine protease inhibitor within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have reported a significant reduction in cystatin C concentration in the C...

    Authors: Meghan E Wilson, Imene Boumaza and Robert Bowser

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:15

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sodium concentration increases during migraine attacks, and both CSF and vitreous humor sodium increase in the rat migraine model. The Na,K-ATPase is a probable source of these sodium...

    Authors: Xianghong Arakaki, Paige McCleary, Matthew Techy, Jiarong Chiang, Linus Kuo, Alfred N Fonteh, Brian Armstrong, Dan Levy and Michael G Harrington

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:14

    Content type: Research

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  14. Aβ transport (flux) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease as well as to elimination of toxic amyloid from the brain by immunotherapy. Several ...

    Authors: Wandong Zhang, Huaqi Xiong, Debbie Callaghan, Hong Liu, Aimee Jones, Ke Pei, Dorothy Fatehi, Eric Brunette and Danica Stanimirovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:13

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Despite enormous advances in CNS research, CNS disorders remain the world’s leading cause of disability. This accounts for more hospitalizations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined, and ...

    Authors: Elizabeth CM de Lange

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:12

    Content type: Review

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  16. It is now recognized that the neuro-vascular unit (NVU) plays a key role in several neurological diseases including epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and the development of gliomas. Mos...

    Authors: Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Frédéric De Bock and Mireille Lerner-Natoli

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. The role of human choroid plexus (CP) epithelium in the transport of solutes between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid and/or in secretion processes may be studied by employing several experimental approac...

    Authors: Zoran B Redzic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:10

    Content type: Review

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  18. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a functional and structural barrier separating the intravascular and neuropil compartments of the brain. It characterizes the vascular bed and is essential for normal brain fun...

    Authors: Yoash Chassidim, Ronel Veksler, Svetlana Lublinsky, Gaby S Pell, Alon Friedman and Ilan Shelef

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:9

    Content type: Review

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  19. Knowledge of the molecular basis and transport function of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) is important for not only understanding human cerebral physiology, but also development of new central nervous sys...

    Authors: Keita Shimomura, Takashi Okura, Sayaka Kato, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Jean-Michel Schermann, Tetsuya Terasaki and Yoshiharu Deguchi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:8

    Content type: Research

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  20. The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically privileged site to which access for circulating immune cells is tightly controlled by the endothelial blood–brain barrier (BBB) located in CNS microvessel...

    Authors: Caroline Coisne, Ruth Lyck and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:7

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. The high-throughput brain slice method is a precise and robust technique for estimating the overall uptake of drugs into brain tissue through determination of the unbound volume of distribution in the brain (Vu,b...

    Authors: Irena Loryan, Markus Fridén and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:6

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. In multicellular organisms epithelial and endothelial cells form selective permeable interfaces between tissue compartments of different chemical compositions. Tight junctions which connect adjacent cells, con...

    Authors: Kathrin Benson, Sandra Cramer and Hans-Joachim Galla

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:5

    Content type: Review

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  23. In addition to possessing intracellular vesicles, eukaryotic cells also produce extracellular microvesicles, ranging from 50 to 1000 nm in diameter that are released or shed into the microenvironment under phy...

    Authors: Arsalan S Haqqani, Christie E Delaney, Tammy-Lynn Tremblay, Caroline Sodja, Jagdeep K Sandhu and Danica B Stanimirovic

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:4

    Content type: Research

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  24. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a selective endothelial interface that controls trafficking between the bloodstream and brain interstitial space. During development, the BBB arises as a result of complex mult...

    Authors: Ethan S Lippmann, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Sean P Palecek and Eric V Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:2

    Content type: Review

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  25. A critical point during the course of central nervous system infection is the influx of leukocytes from the blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (...

    Authors: Tobias Tenenbaum, Ulrike Steinmann, Corinna Friedrich, Jürgen Berger, Christian Schwerk and Horst Schroten

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2013 10:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. The Blood–brain barrier (BBB), present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral home...

    Authors: Anny-Claude Luissint, Cédric Artus, Fabienne Glacial, Kayathiri Ganeshamoorthy and Pierre-Olivier Couraud

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:23

    Content type: Review

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  27. Hydrocephalus is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies that are not yet fully understood. Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of ...

    Authors: Ruth E Swiderski, Khristofor Agassandian, Jean L Ross, Kevin Bugge, Martin D Cassell and Charles Yeaman

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:22

    Content type: Research

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  28. A new adjustable valve, the Codman CertasTM valve for treatment of hydrocephalus was introduced into clinical practice in January 2011. It has 8 different settings with an opening pressure varying from 36 to over...

    Authors: Sara Watt, Niels Agerlin and Bertil Romner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:21

    Content type: Short paper

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  29. Gait abnormalities in the elderly, characterized by short steps and frozen gait, can be caused by several diseases, including idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). We a...

    Authors: Kohei Marumoto, Tetsuo Koyama, Masashi Hosomi, Norihiko Kodama, Hiroji Miyake and Kazuhisa Domen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:20

    Content type: Research

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  30. The motor and cognitive deficits observed in hydrocephalus are thought to be due to axonal damage within the periventricular white matter. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between ven...

    Authors: Funmilayo Eniola Olopade, Matthew Temitayo Shokunbi and Anna-Leena Sirén

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:19

    Content type: Research

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  31. The outcome of pediatric hydrocephalus, including surgical complications, neurological sequelae and academic achievement, has been the matter of many studies. However, much uncertainty remains, regarding the v...

    Authors: Matthieu Vinchon, Harold Rekate and Abhaya V Kulkarni

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:18

    Content type: Review

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  32. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a protein of the innate immune response is attracting increasing clinical interest, in particularly in relation to its deficiency. Due to its involvement in brain diseases, identif...

    Authors: Hansotto Reiber, Barbara Padilla-Docal, Jens Christian Jensenius and Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:17

    Content type: Research

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  33. There is increasing awareness that, aside from producing cerebrospinal fluid, the choroid plexus (CP) might be a key regulator of immune activity in the central nervous system (CNS) during neuroinflammation. S...

    Authors: Nivetha Murugesan, Debayon Paul, Yen Lemire, Bandana Shrestha, Shujun Ge and Joel S Pachter

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:15

    Content type: Research

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  34. Testing for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-restricted oligoclonal bands (OCB) by isoelectric focusing is used to detect intrathecally produced total IgG. By contrast, antibody indices (AI) are assessed to test for ...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Peter Eichhorn, Brigitte Wildemann and Manfred Wick

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:14

    Content type: Short paper

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  35. The new Certas™ shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus has seven standard pressure settings that according to the manufacturer range from 36 to 238 mmH2O, and an additional “Virtual Off” setting with an opening...

    Authors: Anders Eklund, Lars-Owe D Koskinen, Michael A Williams, Mark G Luciano, Stephen M Dombrowski and Jan Malm

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:12

    Content type: Research

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  36. The function of pericytes remains questionable but with improved cultured technique and the use of genetically modified animals, it has become increasingly clear that pericytes are an integral part of blood–br...

    Authors: Elodie Vandenhaute, Maxime Culot, Fabien Gosselet, Lucie Dehouck, Catherine Godfraind, Michel Franck, Jean Plouët, Roméo Cecchelli, Marie-Pierre Dehouck and Marie-Magdeleine Ruchoux

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:11

    Content type: Research

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  37. Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. R...

    Authors: Mohammad Nabiuni, Javad Rasouli, Kazem Parivar, Homa M Kochesfehani, Saeid Irian and Jaleel A Miyan

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:8

    Content type: Research

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  38. The chemokine CCL2 has an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system (CNS). A transgenic mouse model that overexpresses CCL2 in the CNS shows an accumulation of leu...

    Authors: Angela E Schellenberg, Richard Buist, Marc R Del Bigio, Henrik Toft-Hansen, Reza Khorooshi, Trevor Owens and James Peeling

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:10

    Content type: Research

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  39. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible cause of dementia and gait disturbance that is typically treated by operative placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The outcome ...

    Authors: Sunil Patel, Edward B Lee, Sharon X Xie, Anica Law, Eric M Jackson, Steven E Arnold, Christopher M Clark, Leslie M Shaw, M Sean Grady, John Q Trojanowski and Roy H Hamilton

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:7

    Content type: Research

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  40. The aim of this study was to characterize the hCMEC/D3 cell line, an in vitro model of the human Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) for the expression of brain endothelial specific claudins-3 and -12.

    Authors: Anja Schrade, Hadassah Sade, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Ignacio A Romero, Babette B Weksler and Jens Niewoehner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:6

    Content type: Short paper

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  41. Oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid that are absent in serum indicate intrathecal IgG synthesis and are a sensitive marker of CNS inflammatory diseases, in particular multiple sclerosis. It may be of ...

    Authors: David Zeman, Pavel Hradílek, Zdeněk Švagera, Eva Mojžíšková, Ivana Woznicová and Olga Zapletalová

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:5

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) functionality have been implicated in Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate BBB transport of L-DOPA transport in conjunction with its intra-brain conversion,...

    Authors: Paulien GM Ravenstijn, Henk-Jan Drenth, Michael J O'Neill, Meindert Danhof and Elizabeth CM de Lange

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:4

    Content type: Research

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  43. Amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is seen in normal aging. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics are also associated with normal aging and A...

    Authors: Catherine Chiu, Miles C Miller, Ilias N Caralopoulos, Michael S Worden, Thomas Brinker, Zachary N Gordon, Conrad E Johanson and Gerald D Silverberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2012 9:3

    Content type: Research

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