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  1. Systemic drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Low intensity focused ultrasound (LiFUS) is a non-invasive technique to disrupt the BBB, though the...

    Authors: Tasneem A. Arsiwala, Samuel A. Sprowls, Kathryn E. Blethen, Ross A. Fladeland, Cullen P. Wolford, Brooke N. Kielkowski, Morgan J. Glass, Peng Wang, Olivia Wilson, Jeffrey S. Carpenter, Manish Ranjan, Victor Finomore, Ali Rezai and Paul R. Lockman
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:72
  2. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a clinico-radiological syndrome of elderly individuals likely sustained by different neurodegenerative changes as copathologies. Since iNPH is a potentially r...

    Authors: Giulia Giannini, Simone Baiardi, Sofia Dellavalle, Corrado Zenesini, Sabina Cevoli, Nils Danner, Henna-Kaisa Jyrkkänen, Marcello Rossi, Barbara Polischi, Corinne Quadalti, Camilla Stefanini, Pietro Cortelli, David Milletti, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Giorgio Palandri, Ville Leinonen…
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:71
  3. Neurovascular coupling is a precise mechanism that induces increased blood flow to activated brain regions, thereby providing oxygen and glucose. In this study, we hypothesized that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)...

    Authors: Kyu-Sung Kim, Min Tae Jeon, Eun Seon Kim, Chan Hee Lee and Do-Geun Kim
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:70
  4. A range of neurological pathologies may lead to secondary hydrocephalus. Treatment has largely been limited to surgical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, as specific and efficient pharmacological options ar...

    Authors: Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Dagne Barbuskaite, Eva Kjer Heerfordt, Sara Diana Lolansen, Søren Norge Andreassen, Nina Rostgaard, Markus Harboe Olsen, Nicolas H. Norager, Tenna Capion, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Marianne Juhler and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:69
  5. The aims of the study were to measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes in the lateral ventricle, high-convexity subarachnoid space, and Sylvian fissure region in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure h...

    Authors: Jaehwan Han, Myoung Nam Kim, Ho-Won Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Uicheul Yoon and Kyunghun Kang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:66
  6. In myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), several areas of demyelination are detectable in mouse cerebral cortex, where neuroinflammation events are ...

    Authors: Mariella Errede, Tiziana Annese, Valentina Petrosino, Giovanna Longo, Francesco Girolamo, Ignazio de Trizio, Antonio d’Amati, Antonio Uccelli, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo and Daniela Virgintino
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:68
  7. The pressure difference between the eye and brain in upright postures may be affected by compartmentalization of the optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSAS). Both pressure and deformation will depend on the mic...

    Authors: Petter Holmlund, Karen-Helene Støverud and Anders Eklund
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:67
  8. Disturbances in the brain fluid balance can lead to life-threatening elevation in the intracranial pressure (ICP), which represents a vast clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the details underlying the molecular...

    Authors: Eva K. Oernbo, Annette B. Steffensen, Pooya Razzaghi Khamesi, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Dagne Barbuskaite, Frederik Vilhardt, Niklas J. Gerkau, Katerina Tritsaris, Anja H. Simonsen, Sara D. Lolansen, Søren N. Andreassen, Steen G. Hasselbalch, Thomas Zeuthen, Christine R. Rose, Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:65
  9. Endothelial cells (ECs) in cerebral vessels are considered the primary targets in acute hemorrhagic brain injuries. EC dysfunction can aggravate neuronal injuries by causing secondary inflammatory responses an...

    Authors: Min Joung Lee, Jiebo Zhu, Jong Hun An, Seong Eun Lee, Tae Yeon Kim, Eungseok Oh, Yea Eun Kang, Woosuk Chung and Jun Young Heo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:64
  10. COVID-19, which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in devastating morbidity and mortality worldwide due to lethal pneumonia and respiratory distress. In ad...

    Authors: Daniel Adesse, Luis Gladulich, Liandra Alvarez-Rosa, Michele Siqueira, Anne Caroline Marcos, Marialice Heider, Caroline Soares Motta, Silvia Torices, Michal Toborek and Joice Stipursky
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:63
  11. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) often develops following hemorrhagic events such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Treatment is limited to surgical diversion of the ce...

    Authors: Sara Diana Lolansen, Nina Rostgaard, Dagne Barbuskaite, Tenna Capion, Markus Harboe Olsen, Nicolas H. Norager, Frederik Vilhardt, Søren Norge Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Fenghui Ye, Marianne Juhler, Richard F. Keep and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:62
  12. Infectious and immunological theories of schizophrenia have been discussed for over a century. Contradictory results for infectious agents in association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) were repor...

    Authors: Kimon Runge, Agnes Balla, Bernd L. Fiebich, Simon J. Maier, Benjamin Pankratz, Andrea Schlump, Kathrin Nickel, Rick Dersch, Katharina Domschke, Ludger Tebartz van Elst and Dominique Endres
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:61
  13. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles naturally released from cells that are delimited by a lipid bilayer and are unable to replicate. How the EVs cross the Blood–Brain barrier (BBB) in a bidirectional ma...

    Authors: Héctor M. Ramos-Zaldívar, Iva Polakovicova, Edison Salas-Huenuleo, Alejandro H. Corvalán, Marcelo J. Kogan, Claudia P. Yefi and Marcelo E. Andia
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:60
  14. Levels of the biomarkers amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ42), tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The mechanism...

    Authors: Simon Lidén, Dan Farahmand and Katarina Laurell
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:59
  15. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Tumor location plays a role in patient prognosis, with tumors proximal to the lateral ventricles (LVs) presenting wit...

    Authors: Emily S. Norton, Lauren A. Whaley, María José Ulloa-Navas, Patricia García-Tárraga, Kayleah M. Meneses, Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Natanael Zarco, Anna Carrano, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, José Manuel García-Verdugo and Hugo Guerrero-Cázares
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:58
  16. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes secondary pathological damage, such as damage to the blood–brain barrier (BBB), ischaemia and inflammation. Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing 2a (Mfsd2a) has...

    Authors: Yuan Zhang, Lin Wang, Qiuling Pan, Xiaomin Yang, Yunchuan Cao, Jin Yan, Yingwen Wang, Yihao Tao, Runjin Fan, Xiaochuan Sun and Lin Li
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:57
  17. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) occurs in 80% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is mainly caused by the abnormal deposition of Aβ in the walls of cerebral blood vessels. Cerebrovascular molecular...

    Authors: Takumi Handa, Hayate Sasaki, Masaki Takao, Mitsutoshi Tano and Yasuo Uchida
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:56
  18. Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance has previously not been established for neurological diseases. Possibly, variability in cerebrospinal fluid clearance may affect the underlyi...

    Authors: Markus Herberg Hovd, Espen Mariussen, Hilde Uggerud, Aslan Lashkarivand, Hege Christensen, Geir Ringstad and Per Kristian Eide
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:55
  19. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene, which leads to neuronal loss and decline in cognitive a...

    Authors: Raleigh M. Linville, Renée F. Nerenberg, Gabrielle Grifno, Diego Arevalo, Zhaobin Guo and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:54
  20. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in many neurological pathologies, e.g. hydrocephalus and stroke. This condition is routinely relieved with neurosurgical approaches, since effective and targete...

    Authors: Dagne Barbuskaite, Eva K. Oernbo, Jonathan H. Wardman, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Eller Conti, Søren N. Andreassen, Niklas J. Gerkau, Christine R. Rose and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:53
  21. The etiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is currently unknown. With no visible obstructions, altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may explain the accumulation of ventricular fluid....

    Authors: Eva Kjer Oernbo, Annette Buur Steffensen, Hanne Gredal, Helle Harding Poulsen, Nina Rostgaard, Cecilie Holm Rasmussen, Marlene Møller-Nissen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Marianne Juhler and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:52
  22. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological condition with gait apraxia signs from its early manifestation. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is a surgical procedure available for treatmen...

    Authors: Alberto Ferrari, David Milletti, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Giulia Giannini, Sabina Cevoli, Elena Magelli, Luca Albini-Riccioli, Paolo Mantovani, Pietro Cortelli, Lorenzo Chiari and Giorgio Palandri
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:51
  23. The brain requires iron for a number of processes, including energy production. Inadequate or excessive amounts of iron can be detrimental and lead to a number of neurological disorders. As such, regulation of...

    Authors: Stephanie L. Baringer, Elizabeth B. Neely, Kondaiah Palsa, Ian A. Simpson and James R. Connor
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:49
  24. This editorial highlights advances in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2021. It covers research on components of the blood–brain barrier, neurovascular unit and brain fluid systems; how brain barriers...

    Authors: Richard F. Keep, Hazel C. Jones and Lester R. Drewes
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:48
  25. Severe neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood induces dramatic neurological impairment. Central oxidative stress and an inflammatory response have been associat...

    Authors: Sandrine Blondel, Nathalie Strazielle, Amel Amara, Rainui Guy, Christine Bain, Alix Rose, Laurent Guibaud, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin and Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:47
  26. Knowledge of the entry receptors responsible for SARS-CoV-2 is key to understand the neural transmission and pathogenesis of COVID-19 characterized by a neuroinflammatory scenario. Understanding the brain dist...

    Authors: Yong Zhang, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Yashwardhan Ghanwatkar, Sejal Sharma, Saeideh Nozohouri, Elizabeth Burks, Alexander Mdzinarishvili, Zijuan Liu and Thomas J. Abbruscato
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:46

    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:91

  27. The growth of malignant tumors is influenced by their microenvironment. Glioblastoma, an aggressive primary brain tumor, may have cysts containing fluid that represents the tumor microenvironment. The aim of t...

    Authors: Daniel Dahlberg, Jutta Rummel, Sonia Distante, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Espen Mariussen, Helge Rootwelt, Øyvind Voie and Bjørnar Hassel
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:45
  28. Dysregulation of brain fluid homeostasis associates with brain pathologies in which fluid accumulation leads to elevated intracranial pressure. Surgical intervention remains standard care, since specific and e...

    Authors: Søren N. Andreassen, Trine L. Toft-Bertelsen, Jonathan H. Wardman, René Villadsen and Nanna MacAulay
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:44
  29. Cerebral infarction accounts for 85% of all stroke cases. Even in an era of rapid and effective recanalization using an intravascular approach, the majority of patients have poor functional outcomes. Thus, the...

    Authors: Kei Sato, Shinsuke Nakagawa, Yoichi Morofuji, Yuki Matsunaga, Takashi Fujimoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Masami Niwa, Fruzsina R. Walter, Judit P. Vigh, Ana Raquel Santa-Maria, Maria A. Deli and Takayuki Matsuo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:43
  30. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) induces epileptogenesis and neurotoxicity in the brain. As epileptic animal models have been reported to show elevated cerebral GAA levels, the processing mechanism of GAA in the brain i...

    Authors: Ryuta Jomura, Shin-ichi Akanuma, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Masanori Tachikawa and Ken-ichi Hosoya
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:42
  31. Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly submitted in vivo to hemodynamical forces derived from the blood circulation, including shear stress (SS). ECs are able to detect SS and consequently adapt their phenotyp...

    Authors: Nina Choublier, Meryam Taghi, Marie-Claude Menet, Morgane Le Gall, Johanna Bruce, Philippe Chafey, François Guillonneau, Amélie Moreau, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Samir Nakib, Didier Borderie, Haniaa Bouzinba-Segard, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Sandrine Bourdoulous and Xavier Declèves
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:41
  32. Mammalian Claudin-5 is the main endothelial tight junction component maintaining blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, while Claudin-1 and -3 seal the paracellular space of choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cel...

    Authors: Yanyu Li, Chunchun Wang, Liang Zhang, Bing Chen, Yuqian Mo and Jingjing Zhang
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:40
  33. Congenital hydrocephalus occurs with some inheritable characteristics, but the mechanisms of its development remain poorly understood. Animal models provide the opportunity to identify potential genetic causes...

    Authors: Hanbing Xu, Masakazu Miyajima, Madoka Nakajima, Ikuko Ogino, Kaito Kawamura, Chihiro Akiba, Chihiro Kamohara, Koichiro Sakamoto, Kostadin Karagiozov, Eri Nakamura, Nobuhiro Tada, Hajime Arai and Akihide Kondo
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:39
  34. Human blood brain barrier (BBB) models derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become an important tool for the discovery and preclinical evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) targeting c...

    Authors: Jez Huang, Ying Betty Li, Claudie Charlebois, Tina Nguyen, Ziying Liu, Darin Bloemberg, Ahmed Zafer, Ewa Baumann, Caroline Sodja, Sonia Leclerc, Gwen Fewell, Qing Liu, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Scott McComb, Danica B. Stanimirovic and Anna Jezierski
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:38
  35. Parkinson’s disease is mainly caused by aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain. Exchange of α-syn between the brain and peripheral tissues could have important pathophysiological and therapeutic impli...

    Authors: Parvez Alam, Mikkel R. Holst, Line Lauritsen, Janni Nielsen, Simone S. E. Nielsen, Poul Henning Jensen, Jonathan R. Brewer, Daniel E. Otzen and Morten S. Nielsen
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:37
  36. White matter changes (WMC) on brain imaging can be classified as deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) or periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and are frequently seen in patients with idiopathic normal p...

    Authors: Carl Snöbohm, Filip Malmberg, Eva Freyhult, Kim Kultima, David Fällmar and Johan Virhammar
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:35
  37. Oxidative stress is a shared pathology of neurodegenerative disease and brain injuries, and is derived from perturbations to normal cell processes by aging or environmental factors such as UV exposure and air ...

    Authors: Tracy D. Chung, Raleigh M. Linville, Zhaobin Guo, Robert Ye, Ria Jha, Gabrielle N. Grifno and Peter C. Searson
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:33
  38. Blood biomarkers of neurological diseases are often employed to rule out or confirm the presence of significant intracranial or cerebrovascular pathology or for the differential diagnosis of conditions with si...

    Authors: Robert Murcko, Nicola Marchi, Damian Bailey and Damir Janigro
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:32
  39. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a close representation of pathophysiological changes occurring in the central nervous system (CNS); therefore, it has been employed in pathogenesis research and biomarker dev...

    Authors: Tsuneo Nakajima, Shuko Takeda, Yuki Ito, Akane Oyama, Yoichi Takami, Yasushi Takeya, Koichi Yamamoto, Ken Sugimoto, Hideo Shimizu, Munehisa Shimamura, Hiromi Rakugi and Ryuichi Morishita
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:31
  40. The response of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following a stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), has been studied extensively. The main components of this reaction are endothelial cells, pericytes, a...

    Authors: Peter Solár, Alemeh Zamani, Klaudia Lakatosová and Marek Joukal
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:29
  41. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonatal and adult populations. IVH not only causes immediate damage to surrounding structures by way of mass effect ...

    Authors: Katherine G. Holste, Fan Xia, Fenghui Ye, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:28
  42. Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A) is a transmembrane protein expressed in a variety of tissues; little is known about its function, particularly in the brain. ITM2A was found to be highly enriched in human bra...

    Authors: Céline Cegarra, C. Chaves, C. Déon, T. M. Do, B. Dumas, A. Frenzel, P. Kuhn, V. Roudieres, J. C. Guillemot and D. Lesuisse
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:25
  43. Recent studies have suggested alternative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance pathways for brain parenchymal metabolic waste products. One fundamental but relatively under-explored component of these pathways ...

    Authors: Kilian Hett, Colin D. McKnight, Jarrod J. Eisma, Jason Elenberger, Jennifer S. Lindsey, Ciaran M. Considine, Daniel O. Claassen and Manus J. Donahue
    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2022 19:24