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  1. Neuroimmune communication contributes to both baseline and adaptive physiological functions, as well as disease states. The vascular blood–brain barrier (BBB) and associated cells of the neurovascular unit (NV...

    Authors: Michelle A. Erickson, Miranda L. Wilson and William A. Banks

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:26

    Content type: Review

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  2. In vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) models using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial-like cells (iBMELCs) have been developed to predict the BBB permeability of dru...

    Authors: Hiromasa Aoki, Misaki Yamashita, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao and Tamihide Matsunaga

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:25

    Content type: Research

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  3. Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is potentially under-diagnosed and under-treated, generating the need for a more efficient diagnostic tool. We aim to report CSF dynamics of patients with post-traumatic vent...

    Authors: Afroditi D. Lalou, Virginia Levrini, Marek Czosnyka, Laurent Gergelé, Matthew Garnett, Angelos Kolias, Peter J. Hutchinson and Zofia Czosnyka

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  4. Blood removal from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in post-subarachnoid hemorrhage patients may reduce the risk of related secondary brain injury. We formulated a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investig...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Khani, Lucas R. Sass, M. Keith Sharp, Aaron R. McCabe, Laura M. Zitella Verbick, Shivanand P. Lad and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:23

    Content type: Research

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  5. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental component of the central nervous system. Its functional and structural integrity is vital in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain microenvironment. On the oth...

    Authors: Aditya Bhalerao, Farzane Sivandzade, Sabrina Rahman Archie, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Behnam Noorani and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:22

    Content type: Review

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  6. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) maintains homeostasis of the brain environment by tightly regulating the entry of substances from systemic circulation. A breach in the BBB results in increased permeability to po...

    Authors: Kyeong-A Kim, Donghyun Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Young-Jun Shin, Eun-Sun Kim, Muhammad Akram, Eun-Hye Kim, Arshad Majid, Seung-Hoon Baek and Ok-Nam Bae

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  7. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is altered in several diseases of the central nervous system. For example, the breakdown of the BBB during cerebral ischemia in stroke or traumatic brain injury is a hallmark of t...

    Authors: Anna Gerhartl, Nadja Pracser, Alexandra Vladetic, Sabrina Hendrikx, Heinz-Peter Friedl and Winfried Neuhaus

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  8. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) with adjustable gravitational valves, a certain proportion of patients develop secondary clinical worsening after in...

    Authors: Pawel Gutowski, Sergej Rot, Michael Fritsch, Ullrich Meier, Leonie Gölz and Johannes Lemcke

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  9. Syringomyelia is a serious complication of spinal cord trauma, occurring in approximately 28% of spinal cord injuries. Treatment options are limited and often produce unsatisfactory results. Post-traumatic syr...

    Authors: Joel Berliner, Sarah Hemley, Elmira Najafi, Lynne Bilston, Marcus Stoodley and Magdalena Lam

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:11

    Content type: Research

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  10. Hydrocephalus is a common and major complication that affects outcome after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). While aging impacts the occurrence of hydrocephalus in patients with IVH this and the underlying m...

    Authors: Yingfeng Wan, Feng Gao, Fenghui Ye, Weiming Yang, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep and Guohua Xi

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:8

    Content type: Research

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  11. Elevation of the chemokine CXCL13 in CSF frequently occurs during active and acute CNS inflammatory processes and presumably is associated with B cell-related immune activation. Elevation levels, however, vary...

    Authors: Georg Pilz, Irma Sakic, Peter Wipfler, Jörg Kraus, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Wolfgang Hitzl, Eugen Trinka and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  12. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Disturbed corticospinal inhibition of the motor cortex has been reported in iNPH and can be evaluated in...

    Authors: Jani Sirkka, Laura Säisänen, Petro Julkunen, Mervi Könönen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ville Leinonen and Nils Danner

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is mainly produced by the choroid plexus (CP) located in brain ventricles. Although derived from blood plasma, it is nearly protein-free (~ 250-fold less) and contains about 2–20-fold...

    Authors: Elena Dolgodilina, Simone M. Camargo, Eva Roth, Brigitte Herzog, Virginia Nunes, Manuel Palacín and Francois Verrey

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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  14. The endothelial cell–cell junctions of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) play a pivotal role in the barrier’s function. Altered cell–cell junctions can lead to barrier dysfunction and have been implicated in sever...

    Authors: Kelsey M. Gray, Jae W. Jung, Collin T. Inglut, Huang-Chiao Huang and Kimberly M. Stroka

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:16

    Content type: Research

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  15. The classical view of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production posits the choroid plexus as its major source. Although previous studies indicate that part of CSF production occurs in the subarachnoid space (SAS), ...

    Authors: Qianliang Li, Nadia N. Aalling, Benjamin Förstera, Ali Ertürk, Maiken Nedergaard, Kjeld Møllgård and Anna L. R. Xavier

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:15

    Content type: Research

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  16. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a neurological disorder characterised by raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the absence of any intracranial pathology. IIH mainly affects women with obes...

    Authors: Zerin Alimajstorovic, Ester Pascual-Baixauli, Cheryl A. Hawkes, Basil Sharrack, A. Jane Loughlin, Ignacio A. Romero and Jane E. Preston

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:10

    Content type: Research

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  17. Excitotoxicity is a central pathological pathway in many neurological diseases with blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Kainate, an exogenous excitotoxin, induces epilepsy and BBB damage in animal models, b...

    Authors: Lilla Barna, Fruzsina R. Walter, András Harazin, Alexandra Bocsik, András Kincses, Vilmos Tubak, Katalin Jósvay, Ágnes Zvara, Patricia Campos-Bedolla and Mária A. Deli

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:5

    Content type: Research

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  18. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum quotient of albumin (QAlb) is the most used biomarker for the evaluation of blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B) permeability. For years QAlb was considered only as a...

    Authors: Massimiliano Castellazzi, Andrea Morotti, Carmine Tamborino, Francesca Alessi, Silvy Pilotto, Eleonora Baldi, Luisa M. Caniatti, Alessandro Trentini, Ilaria Casetta, Enrico Granieri, Maura Pugliatti, Enrico Fainardi and Tiziana Bellini

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  19. Choroid plexus (CP) is an important tissue not only to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but also to regulate substances that are secreted into or absorbed from CSF through blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B...

    Authors: Fumiko Obata and Keishi Narita

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:13

    Content type: Research

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  20. The brain barriers establish compartments in the central nervous system (CNS) that significantly differ in their communication with the peripheral immune system. In this function they strictly control T-cell e...

    Authors: Hideaki Nishihara, Sasha Soldati, Adrien Mossu, Maria Rosito, Henriette Rudolph, William A. Muller, Daniela Latorre, Federica Sallusto, Mireia Sospedra, Roland Martin, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Fabien Gosselet and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:3

    Content type: Research

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  21. Several small cross-sectional studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and have reported mixed results. Currently, there are no longitudinal studies...

    Authors: Dejan Jakimovski, Robert Zivadinov, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Niels Bergsland, Michael G. Dwyer and Marcella Maria Lagana

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:9

    Content type: Research

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  22. Developing novel therapeutic agents to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been difficult due to multifactorial pathophysiologic processes at work. Intrathecal drug administration shows promise due t...

    Authors: Lucas R. Sass, Mohammadreza Khani, Jacob Romm, Marianne Schmid Daners, Kyle McCain, Tavara Freeman, Gregory T. Carter, Douglas L. Weeks, Brian Petersen, Jason Aldred, Dena Wingett and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:4

    Content type: Research

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  23. Both aging and changes in blood flow velocity between the extracranial (intraspinal) and intracranial regions of cerebral vessels have an impact on brain hydro-hemodynamics. Arterial and venous cerebral blood ...

    Authors: Armelle Lokossou, Serge Metanbou, Catherine Gondry-Jouet and Olivier Balédent

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:1

    Content type: Research

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  24. Genetic disruption of slc4a10, which encodes the sodium-dependent chloride/bicarbonate exchanger Ncbe, leads to a major decrease in Na+-dependent HCO3 import into choroid plexus epithelial cells in mice and to a...

    Authors: Inga Baasch Christensen, Qi Wu, Anders Solitander Bohlbro, Marianne Gerberg Skals, Helle Hasager Damkier, Christian Andreas Hübner, Robert Andrew Fenton and Jeppe Praetorius

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2020 17:2

    Content type: Research

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  25. Communicating hydrocephalus is a disease where the cerebral ventricles are enlarged. It is characterized by the absence of detectable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow obstructions and often with increased CSF...

    Authors: P. Holmlund, S. Qvarlander, J. Malm and A. Eklund

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  26. This article highlights the scientific achievements, professional career, and personal interactions of Malcolm B. Segal who passed away in July this year. Born in 1937 in Goodmayes, Essex, UK, Segal rose to th...

    Authors: Adam Chodobski, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Jane Preston-Kennedy, Zoran Redzic, Nathalie Strazielle, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska and Robert G. Thorne

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:41

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  27. A growing body of evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau (HPτ) in the brain of patients with the dementia subtype idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is associated with delaye...

    Authors: Md Mahdi Hasan-Olive, Rune Enger, Hans-Arne Hansson, Erlend A. Nagelhus and Per Kristian Eide

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:39

    Content type: Research

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  28. Research into amisulpride use in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) implicates blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in antipsychotic sensitivity. Research into BBB transporters has been mainly directed towards the ABC ...

    Authors: Gayathri Nair Sekhar, Alice L. Fleckney, Sevda Tomova Boyanova, Huzefa Rupawala, Rachel Lo, Hao Wang, Doaa B. Farag, Khondaker Miraz Rahman, Martin Broadstock, Suzanne Reeves and Sarah Ann Thomas

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:38

    Content type: Research

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  29. Lumbar puncture (LP) is a common way of collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) both in the clinic and in research. In this extension of a study on the relationship between sleep deprivation and CSF biomarkers fo...

    Authors: Martin Olsson, Johan Ärlig, Jan Hedner, Kaj Blennow and Henrik Zetterberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:37

    Content type: Short paper

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  30. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is observed in association with a range of brain disorders. One of these challenging disorders is idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), characterized by raised ICP of...

    Authors: Sajedeh Eftekhari, Connar Stanley James Westgate, Maria Schmidt Uldall and Rigmor Hoejland Jensen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:35

    Content type: Review

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  31. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolomic investigations are a powerful tool for studying neurometabolic diseases. We aimed to assess the effect of CSF contamination with blood on the concentrations of selected bi...

    Authors: Marta Batllori, Mercedes Casado, Cristina Sierra, Maria del Carmen Salgado, Laura Marti-Sanchez, Joan Maynou, Guerau Fernandez, Angels Garcia-Cazorla, Aida Ormazabal, Marta Molero-Luis and Rafael Artuch

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:34

    Content type: Research

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  32. Although B waves were introduced as a concept in the analysis of intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings nearly 60 years ago, there is still a lack consensus on precise definitions, terminology, amplitude, freq...

    Authors: Isabel Martinez-Tejada, Alexander Arum, Jens E. Wilhjelm, Marianne Juhler and Morten Andresen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:33

    Content type: Review

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  33. Influx and clearance of substances in the brain parenchyma occur by a combination of diffusion and convection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms is unclear. Accurate modeling of tracer distributi...

    Authors: Matteo Croci, Vegard Vinje and Marie E. Rognes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:32

    Content type: Research

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  34. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) ensures central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis by strictly controlling the passage of molecules and solutes from the bloodstream into the CNS. Complex and continuous tight junct...

    Authors: Mariana Castro Dias, Caroline Coisne, Pascale Baden, Gaby Enzmann, Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Sabine M. Hölter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Urban Deutsch and Britta Engelhardt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:30

    Content type: Research

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  35. Following publication of the original article [1], the author has reported that in Figure 1 (b and c) the y-axis TEER (© x cm2) should be replaced with TEER (Ω x cm2).

    Authors: Scott G. Canfield, Matthew J. Stebbins, Madeline G. Faubion, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:31

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:25

  36. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by infection with John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCPyV) in immune-compromised patients, is a serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system...

    Authors: Nora Möhn, Yi Luo, Thomas Skripuletz, Philipp Schwenkenbecher, Inga Zerr, Peter Lange and Martin Stangel

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:28

    Content type: Short paper

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  37. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise for use in cell therapy applications and for improved in vitro models of human disease. So far, most hiPSC differentiation protocols to astroglia...

    Authors: Louise Delsing, Therése Kallur, Henrik Zetterberg, Ryan Hicks and Jane Synnergren

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:27

    Content type: Research

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  38. Bacterial meningitis is a serious life threatening infection of the CNS. To cause meningitis, blood–borne bacteria need to interact with and penetrate brain endothelial cells (BECs) that comprise the blood–bra...

    Authors: Brandon J. Kim, Maura A. McDonagh, Liwen Deng, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir, Kelly S. Doran and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:26

    Content type: Short paper

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  39. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) astrocytes, neurons, and pericytes form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Interactions with NVU cells endow BMECs with extremely tight barriers via the expression of t...

    Authors: Scott G. Canfield, Matthew J. Stebbins, Madeline G. Faubion, Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek and Eric V. Shusta

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:25

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:31

  40. The Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting protocol is described together with the initial outcomes of 175 patients with probable iN...

    Authors: A. Junkkari, A. J. Luikku, N. Danner, H. K. Jyrkkänen, T. Rauramaa, V. E. Korhonen, A. M. Koivisto, O. Nerg, M. Kojoukhova, T. J. Huttunen, J. E. Jääskeläinen and V. Leinonen

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:21

    Content type: Research

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  41. Blood–brain barrier dysfunction is associated with many late-stage neurodegenerative diseases. An emerging question is whether the mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases can independently lead to...

    Authors: Moriah E. Katt, Lakyn N. Mayo, Shannon E. Ellis, Vasiliki Mahairaki, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Linzhao Cheng and Peter C. Searson

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:20

    Content type: Research

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  42. Solutes can enter and leave gray matter in the brain by perivascular routes. The glymphatic hypothesis supposes that these movements are a consequence of inward flow along periarterial spaces and an equal outw...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:6

    The Letter to the Editor Response to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

  43. In our work, “Analysis of Convective and Diffusive Transport in the Brain Interstitium”, published in this journal (2019, 16:6), we estimate the interstitial superficial velocity by comparison of transport model ...

    Authors: Lori Ray, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

    Content type: Letter to the Editor Response

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

  44. After publication of this supplement [1], it was brought to our attention that in the results the line “(0.3 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, and 0.54 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, respectively)” should actually read “(0.54 ± 0.04 m...

    Authors: Adjanie Patabendige, Nick MacKovski, Debbie Pepperall, Rebecca Hood and Neil Spratt

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:22

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:16

  45. Immune cell trafficking into the CNS is considered to contribute to pathogenesis in MS and its animal model, EAE. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of these pathologies and a potential ...

    Authors: Shujun Ge, Xi Jiang, Debayon Paul, Li Song, Xiaofang Wang and Joel S. Pachter

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Periarterial spaces (PASs) are annular channels that surround arteries in the brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a flow of CSF in these channels is thought to be an important part of the brain’s syst...

    Authors: Jeffrey Tithof, Douglas H. Kelley, Humberto Mestre, Maiken Nedergaard and John H. Thomas

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on: