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Table 1 Hormones, serum proteins, and electrolytes in cyst fluid from glioblastomas and from serum

From: Glioblastoma microenvironment contains multiple hormonal and non-hormonal growth-stimulating factors

  Unit Glioblastoma cyst fluid level (n = 25) Serum level (n = 15) Serum reference values
IGF-1 nmol/L 7.3 ± 3.7a
Range: 0–13.7
15.6 ± 4.8 4–22
Insulin pmol/L 24 ± 31a
Range: 1.4–133
105 ± 43  ≤ 160
Erythropoietin IU/L 88 ± 105a
Range: 4.7–402
4.1 ± 2.0 4.3–29
Growth hormone µg/L 0.2 ± 0.2
Range: 0–0.9
0.1 ± 0.1  < 0.5
Testosterone (M) nmol/L 5.0 ± 2.7 (n = 16)b
Range: 0.9–10.1
7.3 ± 3.7 (N = 11)b 4.6–24
Testosterone (F) nmol/L 0.7 ± 0.4 (n = 9)
Range: 0.2–1.5
0.5 ± 0.3 (n = 4)  ≤ 1.1
Estradiol (M) nmol/L 0.22 ± 0.28 (n = 16)a
Range: 0–1.0
0 (n = 11) 0.06–0.14
Estradiol (F) nmol/L 0.09 ± 0.10 (n = 9)
Range: 0–0.2
0.07 ± 0.10 (n = 4)  < 0.12
Triiodothyronine pmol/L 3.2 ± 2.1
Range: 1.0–11.5
3.4 ± 0.7 2.8–7.0
SHBG (M) nmol/L 19 ± 11 (n = 16) 22 ± 11 (n = 11) 15–90
SHBG (F) nmol/L 26 ± 9 (n = 9) 35 ± 7 (n = 4) 23–100
Albumin g/L 28 ± 9a 40 ± 4 38–52
Apolipoprotein A-I g/L 0.5 ± 0.3a 1.5 ± 0.3 1.0–2.3
Sodium mmol/L 140 ± 20 139 ± 4 137—145
Potassium mmol/L 3.8 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.5 3.6–4.6
Calcium mmol/L 1.67 ± 0.47a 2.28 ± 0.15 2.20–2.55
Glucose mmol/L 1.7 ± 1.3a 6.2 ± 1.1 4.2–6.2
  1. Cyst fluid from 25 glioblastoma patients was analyzed with respect to hormones, serum proteins, electrolytes and glucose. For 15 glioblastoma patients, parallel serum samples were available. Data are mean ± SD values.
  2. All p-values were obtained with Student’s unpaired 2-tailed t-tests, not corrected for multiple comparisons. Serum reference values are from The Oslo University Hospital Hormone laboratory. Testosterone reference values are for men (M) > 41 years and for women (F) > 50 years. Estradiol reference values are for men > 17 years and for women > 50 years. SHBG reference values are for men > 60 years and for women > 18 years. Zero values are below the limits of detection, which were: IGF-1: 1.95 nmol/L, growth hormone: 0.030 µg/L, estradiol: 0.04 nmol/L. Abbreviations: IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor 1; SHBG: sex hormone-binding globulin
  3. asignificantly different from serum values; p < 0.001
  4. bdifferent from corresponding testosterone values in female patients; p < 0.004