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Table 3 Sensitivity and specificity for presence of imaging features and some predefined cut-offs to discriminate shunt-responsive iNPH from each control group (the first four columns), and from a combination of all differential diagnoses without or with healthy controls (the last two columns)

From: Imaging features associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus have high specificity even when comparing with vascular dementia and atypical parkinsonism

  VaD MSA-P PSP HC VaD + MSA-P + PSP VaD + MSA-P + PSP + HC
Callosal angle < 90° 93/69 93/85 93/61 93/100 93/70 93/79
Callosal angle < 63° 46/94 47/100 47/93 47/100 47/95 47/97
Temporal horns ≥ 4 mm 91/41 91/78 91/47 91/78 91/54 91/59
Temporal horns ≥ 6 mm 55/81 55/93 55/77 55/97 55/83 55/88
Evans’ index > 0.3 98/50 98/67 98/40 98/77 98/51 98/59
Crowded sulci 84/72 84/96 84/83 84/100 84/83 84/88
Ventricular bulgings 56/84 56/96 56/83 56/97 56/88 56/91
Focally enlarged sulci 49/94 49/89 49/100 49/100 49/94 49/96
Sylvian fissure 75/81 75/85 75/90 75/95 75/85 75/88
DESH 64/88 64/100 64/93 64/100 64/93 64/95
PVH = 2 36/34 36/96 36/70 36/95 36/64 36/74
DWMH ≥ 2 56/22 56/76 56/53 56/62 56/48 56/52
Radscale ≥ 5 100/50 100/82 100/70 100/97 100/67 100/76
Radscale ≥ 8 78/84 78/100 78/90 78/100 78/92 78/95
Simplified Radscale ≥ 4 89/81 89/96 89/90 89/100 89/89 89/92
  1. Data are sensitivity/specificity (%)
  2. iNPH, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus; VaD, vascular dementia; MSA-P, multiple system atrophy parkinsonian type; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy; HC, healthy controls; DESH, disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus; PVH, periventricular hyperintensities; DWMH, deep white matter hyperintensities