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Table 3 Comparison of phase contrast flow measures between MS patients and HCs

From: Longitudinal analysis of cerebral aqueduct flow measures: multiple sclerosis flow changes driven by brain atrophy

AoS-derived measuresAt baselineAt follow-up
HCs (n = 15)MS (n = 35)p-value
HCs vs MS
HCs (n = 15)MS (n = 31)p-value
HCs vs. MS
Vmean systolic peak (cm/s)5.07 ± 2.295.73 ± 2.350.6114.70 ± 1.915.40 ± 1.680.222
Vmean diastolic peak (cm/s)− 3.95 ± 2.31− 4.30 ± 1.450.639− 3.71 ± 2.21− 4.09 ± 1.160.408
Vmax systolic peak (cm/s)9.08 ± 4.59.82 ± 3.480.8179.22 ± 4.749.53 ± 2.870.834
Vmax diastolic peak (cm/s)− 6.5 ± 3.16− 7.32 ± 2.130.468− 6.76 ± 4.1− 7.82 ± 2.680.315
Average area (mm2)2.53 ± 1.143.13 ± 1.180.3252.57 ± 1.273.58 ± 1.550.045
Flow rate systolic peak (ml/min)8.35 ± 5.8510.61 ± 5.410.5087.71 ± 5.0211.75 ± 7.220.072
Flow rate diastolic peak (ml/min)− 6.60 ± 5.38− 7.92 ± 3.580.582− 6.32 ± 5.49− 9.10 ± 5.520.132
Net vol caudal (µl/beat)37.01 ± 24.4847.42 ± 26.230.53429.59 ± 18.8549.25 ± 33.630.052
Net vol cranial (µl/beat)− 36.91 ± 34.83− 40.7 ± 23.390.895− 32.49 ± 35.67− 44.58 ± 31.590.302
  1. HCs healthy controls, MS multiple sclerosis, AoS Aqueduct of Sylvius, Vmean average velocity, Vmax maximal velocity
  2. All measures are shown as mean ± standard deviation. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age and sex was utilized. p-values lower than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and shown in bold italics where trending values are shown in italics