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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Longitudinal analysis of cerebral aqueduct flow measures: multiple sclerosis flow changes driven by brain atrophy

 MS
(n = 40)
RRMS (n = 26)PMS
(n = 14)
HCs (n = 20)MS vs. HCs
p-value
RRMS vs. PMS
p-value
Female, n (%)24 (60)15 (57.7)9 (64.3)15 (75)0.390.746
Age, mean ± SD51.6 ± 9.148.8 ± 9.756.7 ± 4.947.4 ± 12.90.1460.002
Follow-up period, mean ± SD5.6 ± 0.65.5 ± 0.65.7 ± 0.65.5 ± 0.50.8580.423
Disease duration, mean ± SD16.2 ± 10.612.2 ± 9.023.6 ± 9.6< 0.001
EDSS at BL, median (IQR)2.5 (1.5–4.75)1.5 (1.5–2.5)5.5 (3.4–6.5)< 0.001
EDSS at FU, median (IQR)2.5 (1.5–6.0)2.0 (1.5–3.0)6.0 (4.0–6.5) < 0.001
DMT use at baseline, n (%)      
 Interferon-β12 (30)10 (38.4)2 (21.4)0.51
 Glatiramer acetate12 (30)6 (23.1)6 (42.9)
 Natalizumab7 (17.5)4 (15.4)3 (21.4)
 No DMT9 (22.5)6 (23.1)3 (21.4)
 T2 LV change, mean ± SD13.8 ± 34.420.5 ± 39.70.9 ± 14.6 0.095
 Annualized T2 LV change, mean ± SD2.5 ± 6.63.8 ± 7.70.2 ± 2.60.112
 WBV loss, mean ± SD− 2.6 ± 1.5− 2.6 ± 1.4− 2.5 ± 1.50.831
 Annualized WBV loss, mean ± SD− 0.43 ± 0.22− 0.48 ± 0.27− 0.46 ± 0.270.779
 vCSF expansion, mean ± SD13.7 ± 10.512.5 ± 9.915.8 ± 11.60.384
 Annualized vCSF expansion, mean ± SD2.29 ± 1.82.26 ± 1.82.89 ± 2.10.353
 Thalamus atrophy, mean ± SD− 4.7% ± 4.7− 4.5% ± 5.0− 5.1%4.30.701
 Annualized thalamus atrophy, mean ± SD− 0.85 ± 0.88− 0.81 ± 0.9− 0.92 ± 0.80.724
  1. The T2-LV, WBV, vCSF and thalamic volume changes are expressed in longitudinal % change. The lesion and brain volumes are measured as milliliters (mL)
  2. MS multiple sclerosis, RRMS relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, PMS progressive multiple sclerosis, HCs healthy controls, EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale, DMT disease modifying treatment, LV lesion volume, WBV whole brain volume, vCSF ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, BL baseline, FU follow-up
  3. χ2 and Student’s t-test were used. p-value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant and shown in italics