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Table 4 Suspected cause for hardware removal

From: Characterization of a multicenter pediatric-hydrocephalus shunt biobank

  Number of samples with only one suspected cause of failure (% of total samples) Number of samples, including multiple suspected causes (% of total samples)
Proximal catheter obstruction 121 (41.2) 148 (50.5)
Valve obstruction 10 (3.4) 31 (10.6)
Multiple suspected causes 37 (12.6) NA
Externalization due to infection 26 (8.9) 29 (9.9)
Internalization to remove EVD 20 (6.8) 20 (6.8)
Distal catheter obstruction 9 (3.1) 15 (5.1)
Disconnection 7 (2.4) 15 (5.1)
Switching shunt configuration 11 (3.8) 11 (3.8)
Removal of original reservoir 10 (3.4) 10 (3.4)
Over-drainage 6 (2.0) 8 (2.7)
Reservoir malfunction 4 (1.4) 6 (2.0)
Truncated catheter 4 (1.4) 4 (1.4)
Unknown 4 (1.4) 4 (1.4)
Upgrading valve 4 (1.4) 4 (1.4)
Fracture of proximal catheter 2 (0.7) 4 (1.4)
No longer shunt dependent 4 (1.4) 4 (1.4)
Fracture of distal catheter 2 (0.7) 3 (1.0)
Externalized due to other cause 2 (0.7) 3 (1.0)
Ventriculomegaly not otherwise specified 3 (1.0) 3 (1.0)
Wound dehiscence 3 (1.0) 3 (1.0)
Externalization due to pseudocyst 2 (0.7) 2 (0.7)
Successful ETV 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)
Pseudo-meningocele formed around valve 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)
  1. The counts of samples with each suspected cause of failure are shown. The first column displays Multiple suspected causes as its own category, while in the second column this category has been broken into component causes. (% of total samples) = (n of cause)/(293) ETV endoscopic third ventriculostomy EVD external ventricular drain NA not applicable