Skip to main content

Table 2 Pharmacological agents investigated for HAND treatment

From: Potential pharmacological approaches for the treatment of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders

Drug class Compound In vitro system In vivo system/clinical trials
Natural products Resveratrol Rat hippocampal slices exposed to Tat [105]* Not evaluated to date
Curcumin Mouse microglia cultures and rat neurons treated with gp120 V3 loop [215] Not evaluated to date
Rat hippocampal slices treated with gp120 V3 loop [216,217,218]*
Mouse microglia exposed to gp120 [219]
Antidiabetics Insulin Primary human microglia cultures infected with HIV-1 [229] FIV infected cats [229]
Rosiglitazone Primary cultures of mixed rat glial cells exposed to gp120 [118] Mice injected with gp120 ICV [118]
Human brain endothelial cells exposed to Tat [226, 228] MMP-9 deficient mice injected with Tat [227]
15d-PGJ2 Human brain endothelial cells exposed to Tat [226, 228] Not evaluated to date
Pioglitazone Primary cultures of mixed rat glial cells exposed to gp120 [118] Mice injected with gp120 ICV [118]
Troglitazone Human brain endothelial cells exposed to Tat [226] Not evaluated to date
Fenofibrate Not evaluated to date MMP-9 deficient mice injected with Tat [227]
Glutamate modulators Memantine Not evaluated to date gp120 transgenic mice [132, 238]
HIVE SCID mice [239]
SIV infected macaques [240]
NitroMemantine Not evaluated to date gp120 transgenic mice [243]
6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine HIV infected microglia and macrophages [180] EcoHIV infected mice [180]
PPARγ agonists (rosiglitazone; pioglitazone) Primary cultures of rat astrocytes exposed to gp120 [118] Not evaluated to date
Statins Simvastatin Not evaluated to date Rats ICV injected with gp120 [64]
Unspecified Not evaluated to date HIV+ human patients on statin therapy [19]
Antiretrovirals Maraviroc Not evaluated to date SIV infected macaques [257]
HIV patients on stable cART [258]
HIV+ patients with HAND [259, 260]
IFN therapy IFNβ Primary human fetal microglia infected with HIV-1 [270] Transgenic gp120 mice [271]
Rat cerebrocortical cultures exposed to gp120 [271]
B18R Not evaluated to date HIVE SCID mice [187, 278, 279]
Fumaric acid derivatives Monomethyl fumarate Primary human astrocytes co-cultured with HIV-1 transduced monocytoid cells [339] Not evaluated to date
DMF HIV-1 infected human monocytes [281] Not evaluated to date
Primary rat neurons exposed to HIV-1 infect human monocytes [281, 340]
Human neuronal cells exposed to HIV infected human macrophages and neuroblastoma cells [285]
Antibiotics Minocycline Not evaluated to date SIV infected macaques [293]
Rats injected with gp120 ICV [64]
HIV+ patients with HAND [294, 296]
HIV+ patients [295]
NSAIDs Meloxicam Not evaluated to date Transgenic HIV-1 rats [298]
Steroid alkaloids dCA Primary human CD4+ T-cells infected with HIV-1 [301] Tat transgenic mice [302]
Human astrocytic cell line transfected with Tat [302]
Beta galactoside binding proteins Galectin-1 Primary human microglia transfected with Tat [312] Not evaluated to date
Cannabinoids ACEA Human brain microvascular endothelial cells with human astrocytes exposed to gp120 [319] Not evaluated to date
CP55,940 Human brain microvascular endothelial cells with human astrocytes exposed to gp120 [319] Not evaluated to date
WIN55,212-2 Human neurons exposed to gp120 [320] Not evaluated to date
Mouse prefrontal cortices exposed to Tat [321]
Anandamide Mouse prefrontal cortices exposed to Tat [321] Not evaluated to date
AM1241 Primary human and murine neural progenitor cells exposed to gp120 [322] Transgenic gp120 mice [322]
Gp1a Not evaluated to date HIVE mice [323]
Others Fluconazole and Paroxetine combination Not evaluated to date SIV infected macaques [331]
HIV+ patients with HAND [332]
Fluconazole Mixed rat hippocampal cultures exposed to gp120 and Tat [331] HIV+ patients with HAND [332]
Paroxetine Mixed rat hippocampal cultures exposed to gp120 and Tat [331] HIV+ patients with HAND [332]
Chloroquine Not evaluated to date Rats ICV injected with HIV gp120 [64]
HIV+ adults on ART [335]
Asymptomatic HIV infected adult patients not on ART [336]
  1. *ex vivo model used