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Table 1 Animal models of HAND

From: Potential pharmacological approaches for the treatment of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders

Name Neuropathology Neurological and behaviour deficits
Transgenic rodent models
 gp120 Tg mice Astrogliosis, neuronal premature death, decreased dendritic arborization [166] Age-specific memory deficits [167, 168]
 GFAP-Tat Tg mice Astrogliosis, neuronal premature death, increased monocyte and T-cell infiltration [169] Tremor, ataxia, slowed cognitive and motor movements, seizures and hunched gestures [169]
 Vpr Tg mice Neurodegeneration [139, 170] Hyper excitability, aberrant motor activity [139, 170]
 gag-pol depleted HIV-1 Tg mice Reactive gliosis, vascular endothelial apoptosis [172] Circling behaviour, hind limb paralysis [172]
Human reconstitution models
 HIVE mice Neuronal cell death, astrogliosis, microglial activation [184,185,186,187] Impaired working and spatial memory [184,185,186,187]
 huPBL-HIVE mice Astrogliosis, increased microglia activation, increased expression of IL-6, iNOS and IL-1β [188] Not evaluated to date
 hCD34+ cells and mouse lymphoid tissue repopulation Reduction of neuronal soma, meningitis, astrogliosis, encephalitis [190, 191, 194, 195] Not evaluated to date
 BLT mice Detectable viral load in the brain [196,197,198,199] Not evaluated to date
 Chimeric viruses
  EcoHIV Detectable viral load in the brain, neuroinflammation, loss of MAP-2 and synapsin II staining [179, 337] Impaired working and spatial memory [179, 181, 182]
Non-rodent animal models
 SIV infected macaques Depletion of CD4+ cells, detectable viral load in the brain, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss [162] Impaired performance in tasks assessing memory, fine/general motor skills, motivation, reaction time, spatial working memory [338]
 FIV infected cats Encephalopathy, reduced peripherical and motor neuron conductance [206, 207] Aggression, loss of socialization, gait changes [206, 207]