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Table 2 Table summarizing changes of the CP in stroke and nervous system trauma

From: Choroid plexus and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in disease

CategoryDisorderChoroidal epithelial cellsImmune cellsTransportersOthers
StrokeHemorrhagic↑ NF-κB expression
↑ Number of macrophages in the epiplexus position
↑ Na+/K+/2Cl co-transporter 1 regulation
↓ CSF secretion
↑ mRNA for NF-κB, MCP-1, IL1R1, IL-8, IL-6, FAS, TNF-α expression
↑ Iba-1+ and CD68+ epiplexus cells
 ↑ Number of cytoplasmic water vesicles
↑ HO-1 expression
 ↑ AQP1 expression
Activation of TLR4
IschemicApoptosis or necrosis according to the severity of ischemic injury
↑ ED1+ number, CR3 receptors, expression of MHC I and MHC II antigens
↑ Calcium transfer to CSF
Alteration in B-CSF barrier after middle cerebral artery occlusion
↑ Apoptotic cells characterized by nuclear DNA fragmentation after middle cerebral artery occlusion
↑ iNOS expression in epiplexus cells, Number of OX-42+ , ED1+ , OX-18+ , OX-6+ cells in epiplexus position
 ↑ Permeability of B-CSF barrier for inulin after bilateral carotid occlusion
↑ Expression of TGFβ1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other growth factors
↑ MMP-9 expression in infiltrating macrophages
 ↑ VEGF and eNOS expression
[217, 218]
Plasma membrane and organelle damage; clumping of nuclear chromatin after forebrain ischemia
[205, 206]
↑ Number of macrophages
↑ CP epithelial cell proliferation
Expression of NeuN and GFAP after middle cerebral artery occlusion
CP as invasion route for T cells into the ischemic brain
Edema, apoptosis of CP epithelial cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion
↑ eNOS, iNOS, nNOS expression and accumulation of glycogen
↑ Secretion of growth factors including GDNF, BDNF, NGF
↑ MMP-9 level, vacuolization
Indistinct epithelial membranes and varying degrees of pyknosis after middle cerebral artery occlusion
Desquamation of CP epithelial cells
  ↓ AQP1 expression up to 24 h
↑ AQP1expression between 24–48 h after global cerebral ischemia
↑ VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, C3CL1, Nt5e expression
TraumaticTBI↑ Intercellular spaces between CP epithelial cells
↑ Macrophage number in epiplexus position after non-penetrative injury
 Changes in CSF composition
CP apical membrane ruptured
Uptake of serum albumin by CP epithelial cells
Spinal cord injury ↑ Trafficking of M2 macrophages to the injured spinal cord supported by Vcam-1-VLA4 and epithelial CD73
Peripheral nerve injury ↑ Number of ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages in the CP