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Table 2 Table summarizing changes of the CP in stroke and nervous system trauma

From: Choroid plexus and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in disease

CategoryDisorderChoroidal epithelial cellsImmune cellsTransportersOthers
StrokeHemorrhagic↑ NF-κB expression
[299]
↑ Number of macrophages in the epiplexus position
[184]
↑ Na+/K+/2Cl co-transporter 1 regulation
[190]
↓ CSF secretion
[198]
↑ mRNA for NF-κB, MCP-1, IL1R1, IL-8, IL-6, FAS, TNF-α expression
[183]
↑ Iba-1+ and CD68+ epiplexus cells
[186]
 ↑ Number of cytoplasmic water vesicles
[191,192,193]
↑ HO-1 expression
[183]
 ↑ AQP1 expression
[194]
 
Activation of TLR4
[182]
   
IschemicApoptosis or necrosis according to the severity of ischemic injury
[201]
↑ ED1+ number, CR3 receptors, expression of MHC I and MHC II antigens
[217]
↑ Calcium transfer to CSF
[210]
Alteration in B-CSF barrier after middle cerebral artery occlusion
[207]
↑ Apoptotic cells characterized by nuclear DNA fragmentation after middle cerebral artery occlusion
[201]
↑ iNOS expression in epiplexus cells, Number of OX-42+ , ED1+ , OX-18+ , OX-6+ cells in epiplexus position
[217]
 ↑ Permeability of B-CSF barrier for inulin after bilateral carotid occlusion
[205]
↑ Expression of TGFβ1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other growth factors
[216]
↑ MMP-9 expression in infiltrating macrophages
[214]
 ↑ VEGF and eNOS expression
[217, 218]
Plasma membrane and organelle damage; clumping of nuclear chromatin after forebrain ischemia
[205, 206]
↑ Number of macrophages
[220]
  
↑ CP epithelial cell proliferation
Expression of NeuN and GFAP after middle cerebral artery occlusion
[215]
CP as invasion route for T cells into the ischemic brain
[219]
  
Edema, apoptosis of CP epithelial cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion
[212]
   
↑ eNOS, iNOS, nNOS expression and accumulation of glycogen
[217]
   
↑ Secretion of growth factors including GDNF, BDNF, NGF
[222,223,224]
   
↑ MMP-9 level, vacuolization
Indistinct epithelial membranes and varying degrees of pyknosis after middle cerebral artery occlusion
[214]
   
Desquamation of CP epithelial cells
[199]
   
  ↓ AQP1 expression up to 24 h
↑ AQP1expression between 24–48 h after global cerebral ischemia
[209]
 
↑ VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, C3CL1, Nt5e expression
[220]
   
TraumaticTBI↑ Intercellular spaces between CP epithelial cells
[225]
↑ Macrophage number in epiplexus position after non-penetrative injury
[227]
 Changes in CSF composition
[300]
CP apical membrane ruptured
[227]
   
Uptake of serum albumin by CP epithelial cells
[226]
   
Spinal cord injury ↑ Trafficking of M2 macrophages to the injured spinal cord supported by Vcam-1-VLA4 and epithelial CD73
[231]
  
Peripheral nerve injury ↑ Number of ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages in the CP
[232]