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Fig. 3 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 3

From: Choroid plexus and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in disease

Fig. 3

Schematic illustration showing the various invasion strategies of different pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) through the B-CSF barrier into the CNS. Streptococus suis (S. suis) can cross the B-CSF barrier within endocytic vacuoles and there is some evidence supporting a “Trojan horse” mechanism using polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Streptococus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) interacts with the endothelium of the CP. Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) has been observed invading the CNS using a “Trojan horse” mechanism inside mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) can migrate through CP epithelial cells. Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) crosses the B-CSF barrier and forms colonies at the apical side of CP epithelial cells. Polyomavirus JC (JCV) probably forms a reservoir in CP epithelial cells. HIV has been described in endothelial and stromal cells as well as in epiplexus monocytes. Echovirus 30 (EV30) may invade and replicate in CP epithelial cells. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) crosses the B-CSF barrier using myeloid cells as well as via a paracellular route through the TJs. Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) was found in the perivascular region of the CP and also in CP epithelial cells

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