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Fig. 9 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 9

From: Measuring intracranial pressure by invasive, less invasive or non-invasive means: limitations and avenues for improvement

Fig. 9

From Wagshul et al. [32]

Differences between the time- and frequency-domain methods for estimating ICP scores. The pressure waveforms are usually presented in the time domain (upper panel). The single ICP waves are shown as the blue waveform and the arterial BP as the red waveform (PPG, photoplethysmograph, in this case). The lower plots present the pressure data analyzed in the frequency domain, represented as a function of frequency. The signal and the defined cardiac components separated from low frequency components such as respiration can be analyzed independently. Additional information available with frequency domain analysis is the phase, the frequency domain analog of timing in the time domain (not shown). The phase plot allows analysis of timing differences between the ICP and the reference waveform for each identified frequency component.

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