Impact of electrostatic discharges (ESDs) on mean ICP. Results from bench testing of commercial ICP sensors exposed to ESDs. The continuous pressure signal from a Codman MicroSensor is presented before and after ESD in three individuals showing (a) a sudden decline in ICP, (b) a sudden rise in ICP, and (c) a gradual reduction in ICP. Bench testing of a Raumedic Neurovent P sensor exposed to ESDs caused (d) a gradual increase in ICP, or (e) a gradual decline in ICP. Repeated ESDs causing a stepwise increase in ICP are shown in (f). The baseline pressure level (mmHg) is shown on the y-axis and time (minutes) on the x-axis. The ESD is indicated by an arrow. Notably, the ESDs were of small magnitude. When the test person was charged to 0.5 kV, the ESD delivered to the ICP sensor was typically 0.5 kV pulse peak. Charging to 5 kV gave a potential charge of 2.5 kV (2–5 kV). ESDs < 3 kV provoked few unpleasant sensations for the test person, while ESDs of about 5 kV gave unpleasant sensations.