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Table 1 Comparison of intracranial and extracranial flow parameters in younger and older healthy adults

From: Extracranial versus intracranial hydro-hemodynamics during aging: a PC-MRI pilot cross-sectional study

ParametersHealthy young volunteers
mean ± SD (max–min)
Healthy elderly volunteers
mean ± SD (max–min)
p-values
n1619 
Age31 ± 7 (26–44)73 ± 6 (63–82)***
ExtraACBF (ml/min)716 ± 129 (531–933)588 ± 119 (396–771)0.007**
IntraACBF (ml/min)670 ± 158 (329–951)593 ± 107 (343–753)0.12ns
p-values0.4ns0.7ns 
Mean Total Arterial Cerebral Blood Flow (ml/min)693 ± 117 (433–899)591 ± 102 (370–740)0.006**
ExtraVCBF (ml/min)449 ± 173 (250–778)533 ± 161 (171–707)0.09ns
IntraVCBF (ml/min)478 ± 94 (365–682)379 ± 88 (171–501)0.01*
p-values0.66ns0.0002*** 
αExtra1.67 ± 0.75 (0.95–3.71)1.24 ± 0.52 (0.65–2.44)0.01*
αIntra1.52 ± 0.34 (0.99–2.38)1.59 ± 0.41 (0.99–2.64)0.81ns
p-values0.68ns0.038* 
Extra blood SV (ml/cc)0.91 ± 0.39 (0.49–2.08)0.98 ± 0.32 (0.48–1.61)0.24ns
Intra blood SV (ml/cc)0.76 ± 0.30 (0.29–1.28)1.08 ± 0.21 (0.53–1.57)0.001**
p-values0.21ns0.31ns 
Spinal CSF SV (ml/cc)0.34 ± 0.21 (0.08–0.86)0.51 ± 0.20 (0.16–0.89)0.02*
Aqueductal CSF SV (ml/cc)0.04 ± 0.02 (0.01–0.08)0.05 ± 0.03 (0.01–0.10)0.26ns
Extra arterial PI0.85 ± 0.17 (0.45–1.11)1.31 ± 0.32 (1.01–2.05)4.78 × 10–8***
Intra arterial PI0.77 ± 0.22 (0.30–1.04)1.16 ± 0.17 (0.86–1.55)2.50 × 10–7***
p-values0.06ns0.003** 
Intra Venous PI0.25 ± 0.16 (0.03–0.70)0.52 ± 0.16 (0.34–0.97)3.54 × 10–6***
Extra Venous PI0.47 ± 0.25 (0.14–0.91)0.86 ± 0.40 (0.34–1.89)0.002***
p-values0.001 **0.0002*** 
Heart rate (beats/min)69 ± 14 (47–95)70 ± 11 (60–100)0.72ns
  1. In brackets are the maximal (max) − minimal (min) values. Values in italics cells are the p-values for the comparisons between extracranial and intracranial levels for each group. Those in underlined are the p-values for the comparison between HYV and HEV. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. ns non-significant, ACBF arterial cerebral blood flow, VCBF venous cerebral blood flow, SV stroke volume, PI pulsatility index