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Table 1 CSF biomarkers and their semiological value for different diseases (left columns)

From: Effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on amino acids, biogenic amines, pterins and vitamins

BiomarkersDiseases and expected value:
high or low (↑/↓)
A). Blood/CSF ratio mean value of CSF pools 1 and 2 (standard error of the mean)B). Plasma/CSF ratio mean value of CSF pools 1 and 2 (standard error of the mean)
Albumin 28 (3.9)29 (3.2)
Amino acids
 Taurine4.9 (0.2)2.9 (0.5)
 Aspartate15 (8.2)1.3 (0.07)
 Threonine1.9 (0.1)1.7 (0.2)
 SerineSerine deficiency (↓)1.6 (0.1)1.3 (0.1)
 Glutamate7.3 (1.7)1.6 (0.1)
 GlutamineHyperamoniemias (↑)1.05 (0.03)1.1 (0.1)
 GlycineHyperglycinemias (↑)3.2 (0.06)2.2 (0.1)
 AlanineMitochondrial Dis. (↑)2.5 (0.3)2.5 (0.4)
 Citrulline2.6 (0.2)2.1 (0.3)
 ValineBCAA defects (↑/↓)2.5 (0.3)2.6 (0.5)
 Methionine2.4 (0.3)2.5 (0.4)
 IsoleucineBCCA defects (↑/↓)2.3 (0.2)2.3 (0.3)
 LeucineBCCA defects (↑/↓)2.3 (0.3)2.2 (0.4)
 Tyrosine2.05 (0.2)1.8 (0.2)
 Phenylalanine1.4 (0.1)1.6 (0.2)
 Ornithine4.6 (0.6)1.9 (0.02)
 Lysine2.2 (0.3)2.2 (0.3)
 Hystidine1.9 (0.01)1.8 (0.1)
 Arginine0.55 (0.1)1.5 (0.1)
 5-HIAASerotonin related (↓)0.6 (0.04)0.93 (0.04)
 HVADopamine (↑/↓)0.78 (0.01)0.9 (0.01)
 BiopterinPterin defects (↑/↓)1.0 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)
 NeopterinPterin defects (↑/↓)
Immune events (↑)
1.1 (0.1)1.1 (0.1)
 ThiamineTransport defects (↓)3.0 (0.05)2.2 (0.05)
 5-MTHFTransport/metabolism defects (↓)1.75 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)
 PLPTransport/metabolism defects (↓)3.7 (0.3)2.5 (0.3)
  1. Blood/CSF ratios for the two experimental conditions: A) Red blood cells (RBC) lysed in CSF and B) RBC removed from CSF. CSF samples were spiked with 20% of whole blood. A total of 20 CSF aliquots coming from 50 CSF samples were analysed (see details in Additional file 2: Figure S1)
  2. When CSF blood contamination occurs, the most critical metabolites for data interpretation can be glycine (the ratio blood/CSF glycine values is very high) and vitamins such as pyridoxine, thiamine and folate: In genetic diseases leading to brain pyridoxine, folate, and thiamine deficiencies, the blood concentrations of these vitamins can be normal, while CSF values may be near undetectable. Thus, blood contamination could mask the CSF vitamin deficiency. The monoamines HVA and 5-HIAA are sensitive to haemoglobin oxidation
  3. BCAA Branched chain amino acids