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Table 1 Summary of reviewed B waves terminology and characteristics

From: B waves: a systematic review of terminology, characteristics, and analysis methods

Article Terminology Frequency (waves/min) Analysis tool Additional comments
(ICP) slow waves ICP waves (ICP) B waves Lundberg B waves B slow waves Vasogenic waves Slow vasogenic (ICP) waves Other
Spiegelberg et al. [26]    X     X   0.5–2
0.33–3
Cross-correlation  
Lalou et al. [12] X   X    X    0.3–4 Spectral analysis  
Czosnyka et al. [27] X       X     
Cabella et al. [28] X           
Kojoukhova et al. [29]    X        Visual inspection  
Lalou et al. [30] X   X    X X X 0.3–4 Spectral analysis Slow wave
Czosnyka et al. [31] X       X   0.33–3   
Santamarta et al. [7] X   X       0.5–2   4 types, N:5
Hamilton et al. [32] X   X X        
Moyse et al. [33] X           
Lu et al. [34] X         0.5–3 Multiscale entropy  
Antes et al. [35] X   X X     X 0.5–3   Lundberg wave
Horcajadas Almansa et al. [36]    X         
Horcajadas Almansa et al. [37]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Varsos et al. [38] X         0.33–3   
Cordero Tous et al. [39]    X         
Weerakkody et al. [40] X       X X 0.3–2 Visual inspection Vasogenic ICP wave
Lewis et al. [41] X   X         
Budohoski et al. [42] X    X    X   0.3–3   
Elixmann et al. [43]    X       0.5–3   N:3
Smielewski et al. [44] X   X     X     
Jetzki et al. [45]    X       0.5–2   
Kasprowicz et al. [9] X   X       0.5–2 MOCAIP 3 types
Hamilton et al. [15] X          MOCAIP  
Hu et al. [16]    X        MOCAIP  
Kim et al. [46]        X     
Shahsavari et al. [47] X           
Horcajadas Almansa et al. [48]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Asgari et al. [49]    X         
Weerakkody et al. [50] X   X X   X X   0.5–3 Spectral analysis  
Weerakkody et al. [51] X X X       0.5–2
0.5–3
  
Eide et al. [52]   X X X        
Hu et al. [17] X           
Kasprowicz et al. [53] X   X       0.5–2 MOCAIP  
Ursino et al. [54]    X         
Hamilton et al. [55] X   X        Visual inspection N:20, O:30
Lee et al. [56]    X       0.2–3   
Damasceno et al. [57]    X         
Czosnyka et al. [58] X         0.3–3 Wavelet analysis  
Brady et al. [59] X   X         
Stevens et al. [60]    X      X    Hypertensive ICP spikes
Petrella et al. [61] X   X      X 0.33–3 Spectral analysis Lundberg ICP B wave
Schuhmann et al. [62] X   X    X   X   Spectral analysis Vasogenic intracrnial  wave
Minns et al. [63] X   X      X   Visual inspection Slow ICP pressure wave
Jantzen et al. [64]    X X        
Geocadin et al. [65]    X       0.5–2   N:3
Czosnyka et al. [66] X       X   0.33–3 Spectral analysis  
Wang et al. [67] X           
Delavallee et al. [68]    X         
Czosnyka et al. [69] X         0.33–3   
Guendling et al. [70] X         0.33–3   
Czosnyka et al. [71] X   X         
Schmidt et al. [72]    X        Visual inspection  
Agren-Wilsson et al. [73]    X         
Lescot et al. [4]    X X     X 0.5–2   Lundberg ICP B wave
Balestreri et al. [74] X   X     X X 0.33–3   Vasogenic ICP wave
Stephensen et al. [75]    X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis and amplitude  
Czosnyka et al. [76] X         0.2–3   
Fountas et al. [77] X     X    X 0.5–2   ICP slow B wave
Czosnyka et al. [78] X   X    X X   0.33–2 Spectral analysis and amplitude  
Momjian et al. [14] X   X X    X X 0.33–3 Spectral analysis Lundberg ICP B wave
Lenfeldt et al. [79]    X       0.5–2   N:1
Edsbagge et al. [80]    X        Spectral analysis  
Balestreri et al. [81] X   X       0.33–3 Spectral analysis  
Ragauskas et al. [82] X     X    X 0.3–2   
Strik et al. [83] X   X       0.5–3 Spectral analysis  
Daley et al. [84]   X X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis  
Stephensen et al. [85]   X X         
Poca et al. [86]    X         
Lemaire et al. [87] X X X X      0.5–2   
Czosnyka et al. [88] X X X    X    0.5–3   
Walter et al. [89]    X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis  
Schmidt et al. [90] X         0.5–2   
Eklund et al. [23]    X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis and amplitude  
Vanneste et al. [91]    X       0.5–2   
Schoeman et al. [92]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Schuhmann et al. [93]    X         
Czosnyka et al. [94]    X        Spectral analysis  
Droste et al. [95]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Qureshi et al. [96]    X       1–2   N:3
Czosnyka et al. [97] X        X    Slow spontaneous waves in ICP
Czosnyka et al. [98] X X          
Newell et al. [99]    X       0.5–2   
Lemaire et al. [100] X   X       0.5–2   
Steinmeier et al. [101]   X X       0.5–2   
Hanlo et al. [13]    X       3–4   O:15
Krauss et al. [102]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Wayenberg et al. [103]    X       0.5–3   
Lemaire et al. [104] X   X       0.5–3 Spectral analysis  
Krauss et al. [105]    X       0.5–2   
Droste et al. [106]    X        Visual inspection  
Takeda et al. [107]    X         
Newell et al. [108]   X X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis  
Raftopoulos et al. [6]    X       0.5–3   
Sahuqillo et al. [109]    X         N:10
Hara et al. [110]    X       0.5–2 Spectral analysis  
Handa et al. [111]]    X       0.5–2   
Yokota et al. [8]    X       0.5–2 Visual inspection  
Takeuchi et al. [112]    X         
Yokota et al. [113]    X        Visual inspection  
Sato et al. [114]         X    Lundberg’s B
Maeda et al. [115]    X         
Gjerris et al. [116]    X         
Hayashi et al. [117]    X       0.5–2   
Schoeman et al. [118]    X        Visual inspection  
Kosteljanetz et al. [119]    X         
Hayashi et al. [120]    X       0.5–2   
Brock et al. [121]    X         
Kuchiwaki et al. [122]         X    B type pressure wave
Tamaki et al. [123]    X         
Auer et al. [124]    X       0.5–2   
Terzano et al. [125]     X     X    Lundberg B-type CSF pressure waves
Gjerris et al. [126]    X       1–2   N:5
Tomei et al. [127]    X         
Kaye et al. [128]    X         N:10
Bilz et al. [129]    X         
Munari et al. [130] X        X    Pressure waves of the Lundberg type b
Guieu et al. [131]    X X     X 0.5–2   type B pressure  waves
Wilkinson et al. [132]    X         
Liguoi et al. [133]    X         
Fuentes et al. [134]    X         
Munari et al. [135]    X X     X    Lundberg’s B waves
Hayashi et al. [136]    X         N:15, O:45
Martin et al. [2]     X        
Total sum 49 9 96 13 2 6 13 19    
  1. Table summarizing the main terms and characteristics used to describe B waves with articles sorted based on year of publication. Under terminology, terms that appeared more than five times are given their own column. Less frequent terms are included under other and the term is listed under additional comments. The column frequency describes the occurrence in waves/min of the B waves as described in the corresponding article, while the column analysis tool lists the methodology used to detect B waves. Under additional comments, besides including other terms used to refer to the B waves, extra notes are added: N with an associated number value: Lower amplitude value of X mmHg. O with an associated number value: Upper amplitude value of X mmHg. N types: B waves subclassification into N subgroups