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Table 1 Experimental techniques to determine parameter values for the diffusion equation

From: The need for mathematical modelling of spatial drug distribution within the brain

Technique Explanation References
Dual-probe microdialysis A probe measures local drug concentration after diffusion from the first (release) probe [128, 152]
Integrative optical imaging Microscopical imaging of macromolecule attached to fluorescent marker. Uses the hypothesis of restricted diffusiona [72, 76, 156, 160, 168,169,170,171,172,173,174]
Real-time iontophoresis Changes in electrical potential induced by charged ions are recorded [149, 175]
Tracer-based MRIb Magnetic sensitive contrast agents are attached to water molecules and imaged [30, 176]
Diffusion MRI/diffusion tensor imaging Non-invasive techniques to study the random movement of molecules and obtain the diffusion tensorc [130, 131, 166, 177]
  1. aThis states that with increasing molecule size, diffusion becomes less as the molecules approach the width of the brain extracellular space [178, 179]
  2. bCurrently the only measurement to provide a three-dimensional visualization of the brain ECF bulk flow [30, 176]
  3. cThe diffusion tensor measures the diffusivity in several directions, thereby assessing tissue anisotropy