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Fig. 4 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 4

From: Spinal CSF flow in response to forced thoracic and abdominal respiration

Fig. 4

CSF dynamics during thoracic and abdominal breathing. Left: CSF flow in aqueduct and spinal canal (subject #16) during (red) thoracic or (blue) abdominal breathing. Right: CSF volumes during four cycles of forced respiration. The onset of forced inspiration leads to a distinct increase of upward CSF flow which is reversed during expiration. In spinal canal, abdominal breathing causes higher flow rates and volumes, which is not seen in the aqueduct (small flow rates and volumes). Aq aqueduct, C3 cervical level 3, Th1/Th8 thoracic levels 1 and 8, L3 lumbar level 3, IN inspiration, EX expiration

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