Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 3 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 3

From: Spinal CSF flow in response to forced thoracic and abdominal respiration

Fig. 3

Mean CSF flow rates (ml s−1) during forced respiration. Mean color-coded flow rates averaged across subjects in the aqueduct as well as at spinal levels C3, Th1, Th8 and L3 for Top: forced thoracic and Bottom: forced abdominal breathing. The color scale was chosen to visualize the low flow in the aqueduct. Onset of forced inspiration prompts an increase of CSF flow in upward direction (red) at all locations, while downward movement (blue) prevails during expiration at all spinal levels. Forced abdominal breathing consistently causes higher flow rates compared to thoracic breathing

Back to article page