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Table 1 Effects of hydrocephalus on pituitary function

From: Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic literature review

Year Author Type of hydrocephalus Pituitary function findings Type of study
2012 Moin et al. [16] iNPH Decreased IGF-1 Experimental study
2011 Pinto et al. [17] Chronic hydrocephalus Decreased growth hormone Single case study
1997 Löppönen et al. [18] Shunted hydrocephalus Decreased growth hormone*** Controlled cross sectional study
1998 Löppönen et al. [19] Shunted hydrocephalus Decrease in growth hormone and IGF-1 post shunting Case study
1977 Hier et al. [20] Chronic hydrocephalus Decreased growth hormone Multiple case study
2016 Vieira et al. [21] Post hemorrhagic acute phase hydrocephalus Patients with hydrocephalus had increased pituitary dysfunction when compared to non-hydrocephalus patients*** Cohort study
1978 Barber et al. [22] iNPH Decreased growth hormone Single case report
1979 Barber et al. [23] iNPH Hypopituitarism Multiple case report
1997 Hochhaus et al. [24] Hydrocephalus Decreased IGF-1*** Cross sectional study
2015 Khajeh et al. [25] Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus Pituitary dysfunction and growth hormone deficiency Case study
  1. Studies examining the effects of multiple types of hydrocephalus on pituitary function specifically related to growth hormone/IGF-1. Pituitary function findings indicated with (***) indicate a statistically significant result compared to age and cohort matched controls