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Table 4 Influx and net flux of amino acids in the indicated species

From: Elimination of substances from the brain parenchyma: efflux via perivascular pathways and via the blood–brain barrier

  Rat1 Rat2 Rat3 Rat4 Rat5 Rat6 Dog7 Dog7 Cat8 Sheep9 Human10 Human11 Human12 Human13 Human14
Influx* Influx Influx Influx Influx Net Net* Net* Net Net Net Net Net Net Net
Phenylalanine 6.5 7 8   13.2  0.6 0.12 0.01    2.2   0.06 0.3 − 0.5
Leucine 6.2   15   14.5 9.7 1.56 1.28   1.9 6 5.2 3.2 2.2 0.6
Isoleucine 1.8     4 5.7 0.78 0.46   1.5 3.1 1.2 1.4 0.7 0.3
Valine 1.3     1.8 2.9 1.26 0.37   2.7 11.0   1.7 0.8 − 1.7
Tyrosine 5.3 7    4.1 − 1.1 0 0.06    1.6   0.1 − 0.1 − 0.1
Methionine 1.6     1.7 − 1.1 0 − 0.12    1.0   0.6 0.2 0.2
Tryptophan       − 1.1          
Histidine 2.5     2.5 − 1.7 − 0.23 − 0.7      0.7 − 0.3 − 1.3
threonine 1.2     0.8 − 3.4 0.62 − 0.1    5.0   2.6 0.1  
Arginine 1      − 7.4 − 0.2 − 0.05     2 0.7 − 0.5 − 0.1
Lysine 6.2   9    − 1.1 0.58 − 1.6      2.5 − 0.3 − 0.9
Glutamate       1.7 − 0.24 − 0.18 − 0.05     1.4 − 0.5 − 6
Glutaminea     11.6 1 − 15.4 − 6.6 − 4.3 − 1.94 − 7.4    11.0 − 20 − 20.4
nerv. stim.b glutamate          − 1.26       
nerv. stim.b glutamine          − 6.69       
  1. Values are stated in nmol g−1 min−1. Influxes have been measured only in rats. The only available measurements of net fluxes in rats, shown in the italicized column, failed to reach statistical significance
  2. * Data used by Pardridge [379] in his comparison of influxes and net fluxes
  3. aIn some columns the values are for glutamine + asparagine as the assay used detected both
  4. bRelease measured during nervous stimulation
  5. 1Banos et al. [369]
  6. 2Hawkins et al. [583]
  7. 3Mans et al. [584]
  8. 4Ennis et al. [415]
  9. 5Smith and Stoll [43]
  10. 6Brosnan et al. [378]
  11. 7Betz and Gilboe [365]
  12. 8Abdul-Ghani et al. [394]
  13. 9Pell and Bergman [585]
  14. 10Felig et al. [586]
  15. 11Lying-Tunell et al. [587]
  16. 12Eriksson et al. [588]
  17. 13Grill et al. [589]
  18. 14Strauss et al. [590]