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Fig. 2 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 2

From: Elimination of substances from the brain parenchyma: efflux via perivascular pathways and via the blood–brain barrier

Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of the lateral surface of the brain showing a the arterial supply and b the venous drainage with an inset indicating the relations of the pia, the ependyma and the perivascular spaces to the brain parenchyma. The large vessels run parallel to the surfaces of the brain, with smaller branches that penetrate into the parenchyma more or less perpendicular to the surfaces (see inset). Points of penetration of the vessels down into the parenchyma are indicated by black dots at the end of vessels. Branching of arteries continues within the parenchyma yielding arterioles and eventually capillaries that then join forming venules and then veins. These merge and drain into the large veins and venous sinuses on the surface. As discussed in the text blood vessels within the parenchyma have associated perivascular spaces that provide preferential routes for materials to enter and leave the parenchyma. Figure drawn by Robert G. Thorne and used with permission. See [639] for a succinct but still thorough description of human anatomy relevant to delivery of substances to the brain and their removal from it

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