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Fig. 16 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 16

From: Elimination of substances from the brain parenchyma: efflux via perivascular pathways and via the blood–brain barrier

Fig. 16

Simplified overview of fates of amino acids in the brain parenchyma. Essential amino acids enter and leave the parenchyma across the blood–brain barrier. Non-essential amino-acids, e.g. glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and GABA can be synthesized within the brain. The amino groups for the synthesis are supplied either by transamination as shown for glutamate or to some extent [359] by incorporation of NH4+ by glutamate dehydrogenase. The latter route is believed to be minor [359, 641]. NH4+ is added to form the amide group of glutamine by glutamine synthetase (see Fig. 17). Within the parenchyma amino acids are used for synthesis of proteins and (not shown) formation of other nitrogen containing compounds, e.g. nucleotides. New amino acids must be supplied to replace those lost by metabolism. In the brain, input of amino acids is also required to provide amino groups to replace glutamate lost from the pool of amino acids involved in glutaminergic (and GABAergic, not shown) neurotransmission (see Fig. 17). α-KG α-ketoglutarate, e.a.a essential amino acids, t.a transaminase

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