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Table 2 PLVAP expression in brain and eye endothelia detected with PAL-E (human tissue) and MECA-32 (mouse tissue)

From: The role of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein in pathological breakdown of blood–brain and blood–retinal barriers: potential novel therapeutic target for cerebral edema and diabetic macular edema

  PAL-E MECA-32 Type of endothelium References
Brain
Adult brain tissues
Parenchyma BBB [23, 30]
Cerebellum ND BBB [23]
Cerebral cortex ND BBB [23]
Medulla ND BBB [23]
Meninges ND BBB [23]
Midbrain ND BBB [23]
Spinal cord ND BBB [23]
Choroid plexus
 Lateral ventricle + + Fenestrated [23, 30]
 Fourth ventricle + + Fenestrated [23, 30]
Dura mater + + Fenestrated [23, 30]
Pituitary gland + + Fenestrated [23, 30]
Fetal brain tissues + + Immature BBB [30, 38]
Brain tumor tissues
 Primary brain tumors + + Disrupted BBB [23, 35, 38]
 Metastases + ND Disrupted BBB [23, 38]
Eye
Normal eye
Retina BRB [22, 24, 56, Van der Wijk et al.,  submitted]
Iris ND Blood–ocular barrier [24, 33]
Optic nerve head
 Prelaminal region + ND Continuous [34]
 Lamina cribosa ND BBB [34]
 Retro-laminar region ND BBB [34]
Orbital optic nerve ND BBB [24]
Choroid + + Fenestrated [23, 24, 56]
Ciliary process + + Fenestrated [24, 33, 56]
Ciliary muscle Blood–ocular barrier [24, 33, 56]
Conjunctiva + ND Fenestrated [24]
Extraocular muscle ± ND Continuous [33]
Sclera + + Continuous [24, 56]
Developing eye
Retina ND + Immature BRB [Van der Wijk et al., submitted]
Diabetic eye
Retina + + Disrupted BRB [25, 63]
  1. Grading: −, no staining; ±, variable staining; +, positive staining; ND, not determined; BBB, blood–brain barrier; BRB, blood–retinal barrier