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Fig. 5 | Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Fig. 5

From: Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways

Fig. 5

Relationship of injected tracer to vascular structures. ad Fluorescent microscopy of grey matter injection. Tracer co-localised with the wall of the anterior spinal artery (asterisk). A radially directed venule (single arrow head) and veins (note RECA-1 positive and SMA negative) in the ventral median sulcus (double arrow heads) appeared to conduct ovalbumin away from the injection site towards the pial surface. Prominent accumulation of tracer around an arteriole (marked by arrow) against a relatively low background fluorescence suggests it is a pathway for fluid outflow. e Confocal photomicrograph of the anterior spinal artery found in d. A layer of AFO-647 tracer (indicated by right pointing arrow head) was detected external to the tunica media (SMA positive, indicated by asterisk). Another distinct layer of fluorescent tracer was also found internal to the tunica media layer (left pointing arrow head), separate from the endothelial layer (RECA-1, marked by arrow). f Pronounced tracer deposition around a “remote” arteriole (arrow) and vein in the ventral median sulcus (arrow head). These vessels were one level rostral to the grey matter injection site, and therefore tracer accumulation around these structures could not be explained by contiguous tracer spread. It is likely ovalbumin was transported over a distance in the spaces around these vessels. Note tracer labelling of the central canal (indicated by “cc”). g “Peri- and para-arterial” pattern of tracer deposition in specific compartments external and internal to the tunica media of parenchymal arterioles (arrow heads, arrow and asterisk denote the same anatomical layers as in e). h Tracer accumulation between the adventitia and the glia limitans of veins in the ventral median sulcus (found in f). i The same “para-venular” pattern demonstrated in a radially directed parenchymal venule, found in d. All fluorescent and confocal photomicrographs were taken at ×20 and ×63 magnification respectively

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