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Table 2 Summary of the cardiac- and respiratory-driven CSF displacements (cm) in the cranial and caudal directions for the three different respiratory periods

From: Characterization of cardiac- and respiratory-driven cerebrospinal fluid motion based on asynchronous phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in volunteers

Respiratory period (s) Cranial Caudal
Cardiac Respiratory Cardiac Respiratory
Sylvian aqueduct
 6 0.051 ± 0.022 0.124 ± 0.023 −0.049 ± 0.019 −0.121 ± 0.024
 10 0.054 ± 0.027 0.138 ± 0.043 −0.052 ± 0.023 −0.140 ± 0.052
 16 0.054 ± 0.025 0.147 ± 0.054 −0.053 ± 0.024 −0.156 ± 0.058
Foramen magnum
 6 0.319 ± 0.154 0.505 ± 0.314 −0.313 ± 0.147 −0.489 ± 0.325
 10 0.334 ± 0.169 0.614 ± 0.355 −0.331 ± 0.169 −0.670 ± 0.362
 16 0.308 ± 0.133 0.501 ± 0.281 −0.308 ± 0.132 −0.572 ± 0.424
  1. Displacement (cm) in the aqueduct and foramen magnum
  2. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviation