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Table 1 Summary of the cardiac- and respiratory-driven CSF velocities (cm/s) in the cranial and caudal directions for the three different respiratory periods

From: Characterization of cardiac- and respiratory-driven cerebrospinal fluid motion based on asynchronous phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in volunteers

Respiratory period (s) Cranial Caudal
Cardiac Respiratory Cardiac Respiratory
Sylvian aqueduct
 6 0.216 ± 0.049 0.109 ± 0.025 −0.219 ± 0.058 −0.121 ± 0.020
 10 0.209 ± 0.061 0.119 ± 0.016 −0.212 ± 0.052 −0.137 ± 0.028
 16 0.201 ± 0.041 0.110 ± 0.031 −0.205 ± 0.045 −0.131 ± 0.033
Foramen magnum
 6 0.948 ± 0.431 0.384 ± 0.194 −0.976 ± 0.466 −0.348 ± 0.232
 10 1.003 ± 0.534 0.359 ± 0.178 −1.028 ± 0.511 −0.301 ± 0.095
 16 1.008 ± 0.540 0.246 ± 0.095 −1.008 ± 0.489 −0.275 ± 0.117
  1. Velocity (cm/s) in the aqueduct and foramen magnum
  2. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviation