Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Association between ventriculomegaly and cerebrospinal fluid flow with clinical, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging characteristics

From: Correlation of CSF flow using phase-contrast MRI with ventriculomegaly and CSF opening pressure in mucopolysaccharidoses

Characteristics Ventriculomegaly CSF stroke volume
Evans’ index Third ventricle width (mm) Callosal angle (°) Aqueductal (ml/CC) C2–C3 (ml/CC)
>0.3 n = 15 ≤0.3 n = 28 p >10 n = 14 ≤10 n = 29 p <90 n = 8 ≥90 n = 35 p >0.05 n = 11 ≤0.05 n = 31 p >0.5 n = 7 ≤0.5 n = 35 p
Age (years) 9 (2–30) 12 (1–36) 0.483 10 (2–30) 12 (1–36) 0.577 9 (2–26) 12 (1–36) 0.502 6 (1–31) 12 (1–36) 0.229 12 (1–31) 10 (1–36) 0.774
Male sex 11 (73.3) 14 (50.0) 0.199 12 (85.7) 13 (44.8) 0.019 6 (75.0) 19 (54.3) 0.434 8 (72.7) 16 (51.6) 0.299 5 (71.4) 19 (54.3) 0.679
Type    0.709    0.373    0.333    0.183    >0.99
 I 4 (26.7) 8 (28.6)   3 (21.4) 9 (31.0)   2 (25.0) 10 (28.6)   3 (27.3) 8 (25.8)   2 (28.6) 9 (25.7)  
 II 7 (46.7) 8 (28.6)   7 (50.0) 8 (27.6)   5 (62.5) 10 (28.6)   6 (54.5) 9 (29.0)   4 (57.1) 11 (31.4)  
 III 1 (6.7) 4 (14.3)   2 (14.3) 3 (10.3)   1 (12.5) 4 (11.4)   2 (18.2) 3 (9.7)   1 (14.3) 4 (11.4)  
 IV 2 (13.3) 7 (25.0)   1 (7.1) 8 (27.6)   0 (0.0) 9 (25.7)   0 (0.0) 9 (29.0)   0 (0.0) 9 (25.7)  
 VI 1 (6.7) 1 (3.6)   1 (7.1) 1 (3.4)   0 (0.0) 2 (5.7)   0 (0.0) 2 (6.5)   0 (0.0) 2 (5.7)  
Severe form 9 (60.0) 4 (14.3) 0.004 8 (57.1) 5 (17.2) 0.013 6 (75.0) 7 (20.0) 0.006 6 (54.5) 7 (22.6) 0.066 2 (28.6) 11 (31.4) >0.99
Macrocephaly 9 (60.0) 5 (17.9) 0.008 8 (57.1) 6 (20.7) 0.035 5 (62.5) 9 (25.7) 0.089 6 (54.5) 7 (22.6) 0.066 2 (28.6) 11 (31.4) >0.99
CI 10 (66.7) 8/27 (29.6) 0.027 10 (71.4) 8/28 (28.6) 0.019 6 (75.0) 12/34 (35.3) 0.056 6 (54.5) 11/30 (36.7) 0.476 4 (57.1) 13/34 (38.2) 0.421
eCSF protein 6/12 (50.0) 12/25 (48.0) >0.99 5/12 (41.7) 13/25 (52.0) 0.728 3/7 (42.9) 15/30 (50.0) >0.99 2 (18.2) 15/25 (60.0) 0.031 2/6 (33.3) 15/30 (50.0) 0.662
eCSF GAGs 8/12 (66.7) 13/25 (52.0) 0.491 9/12 (75.0) 12/25 (48.0) 0.166 5/7 (71.4) 16/30 (53.3) 0.674 8 (72.7) 13/25 (52.0) 0.295 4/6 (66.7) 17/30 (56.7) >0.99
dPVS 14 (93.3) 15 (53.6) 0.015 14 (100.0) 15 (51.7) 0.001 7 (87.5) 22 (62.9) 0.240 11 (100.0) 17 (54.8) 0.007 7 (100.0) 21 (60.0) 0.075
eWML load 12/14 (85.7) 9 (32.1) 0.003 11/13 (84.6) 10 (34.5) 0.006 8 (100.0) 13/34 (38.2) 0.003 7 (63.6) 14 (45.2) 0.484 2 (28.6) 19 (54.3) 0.410
SCC 10 (66.7) 20 (71.4) 0.742 9 (64.3) 21 (72.4) 0.726 4 (50.0) 26 (74.3) 0.217 6 (54.5) 23 (74.2) 0.270 3 (42.9) 26 (74.3) 0.176
  1. Data are presented as median (minimum–maximum) or counts (percentages)
  2. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  3. p statistical significance, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, Severe form Hurler syndrome (MPS I) and severe form of MPS II, Macrocephaly +2SD or 98%, CI cognitive impairment (score < 70), eCSF protein elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein (>32 mg/dl), eCSF GAGs elevated CSF glycosaminoglycans (>250 ng/ml), dPVS dilated perivascular spaces (number ≥ 10), eWML load elevated white matter lesion load (>0.4 cm3), SCC spinal cord compression (absence of CSF in any direction and/or myelomalacia)