Observed changes in T1-hypointensities and mean diffusivity after treatment. Left: Decrease in volume of T1-hypointensities (y axis) was higher among patients that experienced clinical improvement (red bar, ELD-improvement (N = 7) vs. ELD-no-improvement (purple bar set to zero N = 5): p = 0.008, and between ACZ-improvement (pink bar, N = 7) relative to no-intervention (blue bar, N = 5): p = 0.002). Patients that were not subject to intervention showed an increase in T1-hypointensities (blue bar). Right: Percentage decrease in DW-MRI mean diffusivity (MD) within remaining T1-hypointensites was higher in patients that experienced clinical improvement (ELD-improvement vs. ELD-No-Improvement: p = 0.007, ACZ vs. No-Intervention: p = 0.0002). Data are means +/− SEM.