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Table 1 Dysregulation of the BBB via phosphorylation or down-regulation of TJ proteins

From: Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation

TJ proteins modifications Targeted TJ proteins Signaling pathway Stimulus / Diseases References
Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation Cld5 (Thr207) PKA cAMP [120]
  Cld5, Occludin and ZO-1 nPKC-θ / aPKC-ζ Hypoxia [121]
  N.D. cPKC-α, cPKC-βII , aPKC-λ/ζ HIV-1 gp120 [122]
  Cld5 (T207) Occludin (T382/S507) RhoA/Rho kinase HIV-1 encephalitis [123]
  Cld5, Occludin, ZO-1 RhoA / PKC-α CCL2 chemokine [124]
  Cld5 and Occludin MLCK Alcohol / Reactive oxygen species [125, 126]
  N.D. Hypoxia / Reactive oxygen species [127]
Tyrosine Phosphorylation Occludin c-Src Cerebral ischemia [128]
  Occludin N.D. Glutamate [129]
  Cld5 N.D. TGF-β [130]
  ZO-1 ND Tyrosine phosphatase inhibition [131]
Down-regulation or degradation Cld5 and Occludin Internalization Caveolae-dependent endocytosis CCL2 chemokine [132]
  Occludin JNK, p38MAPK Amyloid-β peptide [133]
  Cld5 ERK1/2 HIV-1 Tat protein [134]
  Occludin and ZO-1 distribution PLC-γ, PI3K/Akt Hypoxia [135]
   N.D.   [136]
  Cld5 N.D.   [137]
  Cld5 and Occludin VEGFR VEGF [138]
  Cld3 N.D. Multiple Sclerosis Glioblastoma multiforme [41]
  Cld5, Occludin, ZO-1 nPKC-δ Cerebral ischemia [139]
  Occludin and ZO-1 MLCK HTLV-1 [140]
  Cld5 and Occludin RhoA/RhoK Reactive oxygen species [141]
  1. N.D : Not Described.