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Table 2 Association between factors pertaining to the patient, treatments and medical resources (predictive variables) and surgical and clinical outcomes (dependent variables)

From: Pediatric hydrocephalus outcomes: a review

Predictive variable Dependent variable Shunt failure Shunt infection Hydrocephalus-related mortality Endoscopy failure Neurological deficit Epilepsy Cognitive impairment Difficulties at school QOL Social insertion
Young age at surgery higher [8, 37, 61, 62] higher [79, 61] higher [50, 63] higher [21, 64] higher [31] higher [31] NS [60] higher [31, 44] higher [44] lower [29, 30, 37, 44] lower [37]
Prematurity higher [62, 6568] higher [7, 6668] higher [27] NS [67] lower [44, 50] higher [69] higher [27, 44, 68] higher [39] higher [27, 68] higher [44] NS [9] lower [29] no data found
Post-meningitis hydrocephalus Higher [56, 62, 70] NS [7, 9] higher [71] higher [20] NS [72] lower [57] higher [30, 39, 56] higher [4, 40, 56] higher [5, 9, 61] lower [4, 30] lower [4]
ventricular hemorrhage higher [8, 62, 70] NS [61] higher [73] NS [7, 9] lower [4] higher [63] higher [20, 69] higher [34, 57] higher [39, 56, 57] higher [30, 34, 44, 57] higher [5, 61] NS [9] lower [30] higher [4] lower [4]
spina bifida higher [62, 74] higher [74] NS [7] higher [3, 50, 58, 74] higher [18, 23] higher [56, 57] lower [39, 57] lower [36, 57] Lower [49] higher [9] lower [4, 30] lower [4]
shunt obstruction risk of recurrent revisions [8, 62, 70] risk increases with recurrent revisions [70] main cause [63] higher [22, 23, 75] higher [44] NS [57] higher [39] NS [60] higher [57, 76] NS [41, 47, 49] Higher [76, 77] NS [61] lower [29] no data found
shunt infection (1) (1) higher [9, 58] higher [22] higher [30] higher [9, 39] NS [60] higher [9, 57] higher [9] lower [9, 78] no data found
endoscopy lower [19, 24] lower [19, 79] lower [23] NS [73] (1) no data found lower [39, 80] NS [79] no data found better [73] NS [79] no data found
epilepsy higher in infants [60] no data found no data found no data found no data found (1) higher [36, 39, 56, 81] higher [39] lower [29, 30] no data found
local resources high volume of surgery: lower [12] high volume of surgery: lower [12] high volume: lower [12] geographic distance: higher [63] no data found no data found no data found no data found no data found geographic distance: lower [29] no data found
  1. Because they are both causes and consequences, shunt obstruction, shunt infection and epilepsy are indicated both as predictive and dependent variables.
  2. (1): these correlations are not documented because meaningless (collinear variables); however, shunt obstruction has a documented impact on the risk of recurrent shunt failure [8, 62, 70].
  3. The voids in this table indicate that there is space for clinical research on hydrocephalus outcome, especially on the very-long term outcome. QOL: quality of life.