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Table 1 Investigations that may be performed to verify comorbidity in INPH

From: Influence of comorbidities in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus — research and clinical care. A report of the ISHCSF task force on comorbidities in INPH

Investigation Indication
MRI of the spine Lumbar or cervical spinal stenosis?
MRI brain (T1, T2, FLAIR, T2*, diffusion, perfusion) Atrophy? White matter lesions? Infarctions? Microbleeds? Brain volumes? Cerebral blood flow?
X-ray or MRI of hip or knee Arthrosis?
Bladder diary Type of urinary problems?
Measurement of residual urine Obstruction?
Urinalysis/urine culture Urinary tract infection?
Vascular risk factor analysis/inventory Burden of cerebrovascular disease risk factors?
CSF T-Tau, P-Tau and Aβ42 Alzheimer’s disease?
Brain biopsy Alzheimer’s disease. Only in research and if approved by internal review board
Depression scale Treatment of depression?
Response to levodopa Parkinson disease?
Dopamine transporter imaging Dementia with Lewy bodies?
Test of autonomic dysfunction Multiple system atrophy?
Comorbidity index/rating scale Quantification of co-morbidity