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Table 3 Marker concentrations in lumbar CSF pre- and postoperatively.

From: Cerebrospinal fluid markers before and after shunting in patients with secondary and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

   CSF preoperatively CSF postoperatively
  Lab reference value Preop SNPH (n = 17) Preop INPH (n = 18) Preop Improved (n = 28) Preop Unimproved (n = 7) Postop SNPH (n = 17) Postop INPH (n = 18) Postop Improved (n = 28) Postop Un-improved (n = 7)
Protein content:          
Albumin (mg/L) < 400 710 (511) pathol 544 (171) ns 650 (413) 529 (211) ns 1522 (3044) ↑ *** 1217 (1052) ↑ *** 1439 (2569) ↑ *** 1141 (935) ns
Albumin ratio < 10.2 12.2 (11.0) pathol 8.4 (3.7) ns 10.8 (8.9) 8.0 (4.6) ns 24 (46) ↑ *** 21 (22) ↑ *** 24 (40) ↑ *** 19 (17) ns
Transmitter function:          
HVA (nmol/L) 253 (109) [23] 209 (146) normal 225 (155) ns 240 (154) 140 (102) ns 229 (133) ns 218 (79) ns 230 (111) ns 202 (112) ns
5-HIAA (nmol/L) 125 (54) [23] 111 (56) normal 118 (95) ns 126 (80) 74 (53) ns 119 (50) ns 123 (33) ns 127 (42) ns 96 (38) ns
HMPG (nmol/L) 47 (10) [23] 37 (15) normal 36 (16) ns 39 (16) 28 (13) ns 38 (9) ns 44 (16) ns 43 (13) ns 31 (7) ns
NPY (pmol/L) 120–170 [25] 89 (26) low 106 (36) ns 95 (30) 108 (39) ns 110 (31) ↑ *** 155 (46) ↑ *** 124 (38) ↑ *** 161 (60) ns
VIP (pmol/L) < 20 [14] 6.1 (1.7) normal 8.4 (4.9) ns 6.4 (1.4) 10.5 (7.9) ns 13 (5) ↑ *** 26 (22) ↑ ** 16 (5) ↑ *** 36 (38) ns
GABA (nmol/L) 50–130 [36] 53 (30) normal 67 (44) ns 53 (25) 80 (58) ns 84 (64) ↑ ** 103 (115) ns 91 (100) ↑ * 103 (25) ns
Demyelination:          
Sulphatide (nmol/L) < 300 [24] 210 (111) normal 208 (91) ns 210 (100) 204 (105) ns 239 (116) ns 360 (318) ns 279 (245) ns 363 (195) ns
Gliosis:          
GD3 (nmol/L) 50 (12) [27] 39 (25) normal 38 (22) ns 35 (22) 50 (25) ns 56 (28) ↑ * 70 (33) ↑ *** 59 (32) ↑ ** 79 (20) ns
Neuronal degeneration:          
NFL (ng/L) < 300 [28] 4884 (5855) pathol 1352 (2989) ** 3637 (5338) 938 (1102) ns 3178 (4315) ns 1828 (3313) ns 2647 (3550) 2161 (1815) ns
TAU (ng/L) < 400 [26] 311 (354) normal 229 (160) ns 267 (296) 275 (165) ns 341 (174) ns 651 (256) ↑ *** 449 (248) 633 (305) ns
  1. Values are given as mean (SD). Laboratory reference values are given in Column 1 where superscript numbers in square parentheses are literature references to laboratory reference values. INPH patients had significantly lower preoperative NFL than SNPH patients, as indicated in the preoperative INPH column, otherwise no differences were seen between groups preoperatively. There were no differences in preoperative CSF concentrations between improved and unimproved patients as indicated in the preoperative unimproved column. NFL was numerically, but not significantly, higher in the preoperative improved than in the unimproved group. There were no differences in postoperative CSF concentrations between improved and unimproved patients as indicated in the postoperative unimproved column. Postoperative values compared to preoperative levels are indicated in the postoperative columns. A number of markers showed significant increases postoperatively in the SNPH, INPH and improved groups as indicated by arrows. ns = non significant; * = p ≤ 0.05; ** = p ≤ 0.01; *** = p ≤ 0.001. The data for improved and unimproved patients has been published previously [18].