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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of SNPH and INPH patients pre- and postoperatively.

From: Cerebrospinal fluid markers before and after shunting in patients with secondary and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Index Function/Test Preop SNPH (n = 17) Preop INPH (n = 18) Postop SNPH (n = 17) Postop INPH (n = 18)
Global MMSE (0–30) 17.2 (9.6) 23.3 (7.4) * 23.3 (4.6) ** 25.9 (7.9) **
Psycho-metric Identical forms test (0–60) 14.4 (17.8) 24.4 (12.3) 20.9 (17.3) ns 32.3 (12.1) ns
  Bingley's test (0–12) 1.9 (2.1) 4.0 (2.1) * 3.9 (1.7) ** 4.4 (1.8) ns
  Reaction time test (s) 1.7 (3.0) 1.4 (1.8) 0.5 (0.7) ns 0.9 (1.3) ns
Balance Romberg's test (0–60) 24.9 (27.2) 42.8 (26.1) 41.1 (25.5) ** 50.4 (22.0) **
Gait Gait performance (1–6) 3.4 (1.8) 2.4 (1.2) * 2.2 (1.5) ** 1.8 (1.1) ns
  Time needed to walk 10 m (s) 38.5 (43.1) 23.4 (35.3) 11.4 (2.2) * 12.6 (4.2) *
  Steps needed to walk 10 m (#) 42.8 (38.1) 30.1 (22.4) 19.9 (3.7) ** 19.5 (4.6) **
Cont-inence Urgency incontinence (yes/no) 4/11 8/10 * 11/5 * 5/13 ns
Wake-fulness IW (1/2/3/4) 4/7/3/3 9/7/2 * 14/3/0/0 ** 14/4/0/0 *
MoD     0.75 (0.72) 0.33 (0.37)
  1. Values are given as Mean (SD) or frequency. Gait performance is registered as 1–6: 1 = normal; 2 = insecure; 3 = insecure cane; 4 = bimanual support; 5 = aided; 6 = wheelchair. 1–4: 1 = none; 2 = slight; 3 = moderate; 4 = severe. IW = Impairment of wakefulness (1 = none; 2 = slight; 3 = moderate; 4 = severe). MoD = mean of differences which is a measure of overall improvement (see statistics). Significant differences between SNPH and INPH patients preoperatively are indicated in the Preop INPH column. Differences between the pre- and postoperative assessment were analysed for SNPH and INPH patients as indicated in the Postop columns. ns = non significant; * = p ≤ 0.05; ** = p ≤ 0.01; *** = p ≤ 0.001.