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Table 2 Strategies for pharmacologically manipulating the rate of CSF formation by the epithelial cells of choroid plexus

From: Multiplicity of cerebrospinal fluid functions: New challenges in health and disease

- Modulation of transcription factors or nuclear receptors that control expression of enzymes involved in CSF formation
   Molecular targets: p73, foxJ1, and E2F5 [30, 31]
- Interference with the basolateral and apical membrane-associated ion translocaters (cotransporters, exchangers and pumps)
   Molecular targets: Na-K-Cl cotransporter [45–48]; Na-H exchanger [36–38]; Cl-HCO3 exchanger [40, 55]; Na pump [49, 106, 107, 110] Na-HCO3 cotransporter [41]; Na-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchanger [42] K and anion channels in apical membrane [68]
- Inhibition of the enzymatic generation of labile ions in cytoplasm and in microdomains of the plasma membrane
   Molecular targets: carbonic anhydrase isoforms [43, 44, 52, 53, 56–58]
- Regulation of the expression and activity of aquaporin water-conducting channels in the apical (CSF-facing) plasma membrane
   Molecular target: Aquaporin 1 channel [65–68, 70–78, 292]
- Stimulation of plasma membrane receptors for fluid-regulating neuropeptides
   Molecular targets: V1 receptor [83, 84, 90, 207, 210, 217]; NPR receptors [85, 97, 101, 103]; AT1 receptor [217]